https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/issue/feed African Journal of Empirical Research 2022-09-02T13:24:07+00:00 Chief Editor editor@ajernet.net Open Journal Systems <p>The African Journal of Empirical Research (AJERNET) is a publisher of peer-reviewed journals and other empirically driven works. The aim of the journal is to provide researchers, students, and professors with up-to-date multidisciplinary literature. This is for purposes of enhancing easy exchange of ideas, review of research, and expertise among academics. We accept papers that are based on empirical research, meta-analysis, and systematic review of extant literature. Upon receipt, these papers are meticulously reviewed by highly qualified and experienced scholars and published at an affordable cost.</p> <p>Established in East Africa, the journal aims at facilitating the distribution and publication of research that reflects the ever-changing requirements of academics from a multiplicity of disciplines. All content is published on an open-access basis. This means that there is unrestricted access, distribution, and reproduction of all published work as long as it is correctly cited.</p> <p>All published content is distributed to thousands of libraries the world over. Authors are accorded timely support and guidance throughout the publishing process. If any work is not responsive to our publication standards, the author(s) is given enough time and guidance to revise it. Certificates are issued for all works published. We look forward to working with you. Get published today.</p> https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/3 Relationship between Psychosocial Health and Drug Use among Street Children in Starehe Sub-County, Nairobi County Kenya 2022-06-10T16:41:14+00:00 Brian Ochieng’ O’gallo brian.ogallo@yahoo.com <p>Life in the streets is not easy. It has immense negative effects on the psychosocial health of street children which could result in substance use. This study set out to examine the relationship between psycho-social health and drug use among street children in Starehe Sub-County, Nairobi County Kenya. This study was based on the Problem Behaviour Theory (PBT). This study adopts the correlational research design. Data were collected from 100 street children. These were sampled using cluster and simple random sampling techniques from a target population of 30,000 in the Starehe Sub-County of Nairobi County. In addition, data was collected from purposively sampled four officials from the Starehe Children’s Office, eight officials of NGO/FBO operating in the sub-county, 1 sub-county administrator, and 4 ward administrators from the Sub-County. The qualitative data collected using questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics like mean, percentage, and frequencies, as well as inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The findings obtained were presented using charts and tables. The qualitative data collected using interviews were analyzed thematically. The findings were then presented in prose. The findings show that psychosocial health affected drug use among street children. Pearson correlation showed that there was a significant relationship between drug use and psychosocial health, r=0.503. The findings show that the measures put in place to enhance the mental health of street children made had significant influences on their drug use. There is also a need to provide street children with homes to reduce exposure to stressful conditions that could lead to mental health problems. Regular free mental healthcare clinics should also be availed for all street children. Raising awareness and sensitizing the street children on the negative implications of drugs is also important. There is a need to strengthen behaviour counseling, support groups, and sober social networks for street children. The government and non-governmental organizations should come up with programs for supporting access to counseling services. Some of the street children should also be trained to prop up their abilities to offer peer counseling services to their colleagues.</p> 2022-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Brian Ochieng’ O’gallo https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/19 A Model for Effective Management of Students Records in the Academic Registrars’ Offices in Kenyan Universities 2022-07-18T16:20:33+00:00 Elizabeth Metto jepkorireliza@gmail.com Benson N. Kinuthia kinuthiabn@gmail.com Miriam Mwita bagenim@gmail.com <p><em>The delivery of records management services in businesses is significantly influenced by records management models. However, many colleges don't take into account the implementation models while designing records management programs. In order to provide a model that universities can utilize to execute records management, this study examined the records management methods used by the universities in Kenya. Data was gathered via a questionnaire. &nbsp;The findings shows that the best model that can be proposed to ensure effective management of student records in the academic registrar’s office in Kenyan universities should&nbsp; take cognizance of the differences between public and private universities. In private and new universities, there is no need for standardization of storing records and creation and classification of records. Conversely, there was no need for creation and classification of records, storing records, use of information technology and challenges faced in the management of student records in old and new universities. The challenges faced in the management of student records and retrieval and communication of records should be harmonized between both private and public universities as well old and new universities. Exchange of best practices in these areas should also be undertaken in these areas. Once these areas are addressed, the effective management of students’ records in the universities would be realized.</em></p> 2022-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Metto , Kinuthia Benson N. , Mwita Miriam https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/17 A Study of the Relationship between the Quality of Social Support System and Drug Use among Street Children in Starehe Sub-County, Nairobi County Kenya 2022-07-09T20:51:20+00:00 Brian Ochieng’ O’gallo brian.ogallo@yahoo.com <p><em>The study aimed at examining the relationship between the quality of the social support system and drug use among street children in Starehe Sub-County, Nairobi County Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: explore the relationship between psychosocial health and drug use among street children and the relationship between the quality of social support system and drug use among street children in Starehe Sub-County, Nairobi County Kenya. This study adopted the correlational research design. Data were collected from 100 street children. These were sampled using cluster and simple random sampling techniques from a target population of 30,000 in Starehe Sub-County of Nairobi County. In addition, data was collected from purposively sampled four officials from the Starehe Children's Office, eight officials of NGO/FBO operating in the sub-county, 1 sub-county administrator, and 4 ward administrators from the Sub-County. The qualitative data collected using questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics like mean, percentage, and frequencies, as well as inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation and regression analysis. The findings obtained were presented using charts and tables. The qualitative data collected using interviews were analyzed thematically. The findings were then presented in prose. The findings show that the independent variables are psychosocial health and quality of social support. Pearson correlation showed that there was a significant relationship between drug use and all the independent variables (psychosocial health, r=0.503, p&lt;0.05 and quality of social support system, r=0.538, p&lt;0.05. The findings show that the measures put in place to enhance the mental health of street children made had significant influences on their drug use. Strengthening the existing social support systems meant that street children could get the support needed to steer them away from drug use. The study recommends that it is important to promote the social support systems in the Starehe sub-county. There is also a need to provide street children with homes to reduce exposure to stressful conditions that could lead to mental health problems.</em></p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Brian Ochieng’ O’gallo https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/14 Securitization of Global Health Pandemic and Reiterating the Relevance of 2005 International Health Regulations: COVID-19 and Human Security in Africa 2022-06-30T16:06:45+00:00 Osaji Nsagha Nkang pingosaji76@gmail.com Okon Bassey Bassey kingpinbassey@gmail.com <p><em>The Copenhagen school of security changed the long-standing traditional thinking of security that was state-centered. Thus security, from a state-centric view was a Westphalian doctrine that centered on issues of war, interstate rivalry, boundary disputes, foreign policy, arms race, alliance, protection of state and its leaders, etc. The integration of non-military threats like health, disease, poverty, terrorism, environmental degradation, etc. into security discourse was adopted as serious security threats of global proportion. The securitization of health pandemics like COVID-19 was also given a boost by the 2005 International Health Regulation-IHR. The IHR-2005 tends to prevent, protect against, control, detect with surveillance using an early warning system, and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade restrictions. Yet countries and the African continent were not swift in tracking the COVID-19 unleashed unbearable global suffering in the form of the heavy death toll, unemployment, denial of human rights to movement, assembly, worship, and a decline in the global economy, halting international travel and international economy/business. The paper, therefore, examined the success of the IHR-2005, in terms of African continent compliance with IHR-2005 and the impact of COVID-19 on human security in Africa. The paper is content analysis-based in methodology as data was obtained from mainly secondary sources, such as textbooks, journal publications, internet materials, magazines, etc. the human security theory was explored to buttress the paper. It was discovered that, despite the International and Regional regulations, to track and curb the spread and devastating impact of health pandemic as COVID-19, the African continent still suffered severely, with death tolls, job loss, human and Civil rights abuses, etc. the work, therefore, recommends: equipping the various states, not just financially, but with skilled and trained manpower in areas of health emergencies, ensuring various states implement such regulations with strict monitoring.</em></p> 2022-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Osaji Nsagha Nkang, Okon Bassey Bassey https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/27 Influence of Parental Separation Anxiety-Induced Traumatic Stress on Substance Use among the Youth in Private and Public Universities in Lang’ata Constituency, Nairobi County 2022-09-02T13:24:07+00:00 Caroline Mary Mwendwa Onyango caronney@gmail.com Susan Gitau sgitau@anu.ac.ke <p><em>Substance use among the youth has been on the rise in Kenya; leading to a lot of psychosocial problems. In spite of varied initiatives by the Kenya Government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) as well as the local and international community to control substance use, very little, less progress has been achieved hence, the need to study in detail the psychosocial factors associated with substance use among the youths in private and public Universities. The study investigated the influence of separation anxiety on substance use among the youths in private and public universities in Lang’ata Constituency, Nairobi County specifically, the &nbsp;Co-operative University of Kenya and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT, Karen Campus), The Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA) and Tangaza University College (TUC). The research employed descriptive survey design and the target population of 140 comprising: students, counsellors, and deans of students. A sample size of 104 participants was selected using stratified random sampling followed by Simple random sampling and Purposive sampling. The research instruments for data collection were pre-tested using Spearman’s rank-order formula for test-retest to compute the correlation coefficient to establish reliability. A correlation coefficient of + 0.65 and above was considered high enough for reliability. The study had a correlation coefficient of + 0.7 and hence, determined the reliability of the instruments, and the validity was perfected by experts. Data were collected using questionnaires, interview schedules, and the PTSD checklist to access trauma among the students. A pilot study was conducted in a neighboring public university of 14% target population participants to correct the instruments and for triangulation purposes. Descriptive statistics including mean, frequency tables, percentages, and ratios as well as inferential statistics including Pearson’s correlation was used to analyze the data with the help of the Advanced Microsoft Excel Package for Data Analysis. The study established that the interaction between parental separation anxiety significantly influenced university students on substance use (dependent variable) (r=0.570). Based on the study findings, it is recommended that there should be strong therapeutic interventions for students suffering from separation anxiety. This can be done by the universities as well as civil society organizations through guidance and counselling as well as social support interventions. The government, through security agencies, should provide strong bulwarks against physical violence targeted at students.</em></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Caroline Mary Mwendwa Onyango , Susan Gitau https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/9 Effect of Managerial Skills on the Development of Dairy Cooperatives in Kiambu County 2022-06-24T15:45:04+00:00 Peter Githinji Mugwe mugweg@gmail.com <p><em>Cooperatives societies are part and parcel of an increasing number of people in formal and informal employment the world over. The study sought to examine how managerial skills affect the development of Dairy Cooperatives in Kiambu County. Grounded on the Social Capital and Resource-Based Theory, this study adopted the descriptive research design. In this study, the target population was 59,635 registered Dairy Cooperative members while the sample size was 398 respondents who were picked via stratified random sampling. Data collection involved questionnaires that contained 5-point scale Likert-type statements. Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out. In this case, tests such as central tendency (mean), frequencies, percentages, and standard deviation in addition to Pearson and regression analysis were utilized. The findings show that managerial skills had a significant influence on the development of dairy cooperatives. This is evidenced by a positive and statistically significant relationship between managerial skills &amp; leadership (r=.156, p&lt;0.001) and the development of dairy cooperatives. These findings lead to the conclusion that the kind of managerial skills and leadership in dairy cooperatives affected their development. The skills deployed by the managerial team would thus determine the level of development in dairy cooperatives. As such, there was a need for dairy Cooperatives to have robust management teams staffed with highly competent and experienced managers. The integrity of the firms should be established and regularly assessed to avoid corruption and mismanagement of the finances. Training is also necessary to enhance the capacity of managers and employees. This could be done in-house or sponsored by institutions of learning.</em></p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Peter Githinji Mugwe https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/25 Influence of Gender Equality in the Management Committee on Community-Led Monitoring of Borehole Water Projects 2022-08-08T16:44:25+00:00 Kimathi Joseph joseph.kimathi9@gmail.com Judy Mwangi jmwangi@mku.ac.ke <p><em>In recent years, governments and development practitioners have emphasized the involvement of all stakeholders, especially the intended beneficiaries in the project cycle to accelerate the achievement of development objectives and sustain the realized gains. Various approaches are being used to intensify the involvement of people in the planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of community-driven development interventions. In Kenya, County governments are constitutionally mandated to promote the participation of the people in development and governance at the local level. Since their inception, the County governments have been putting in place local governance structures and avenues for members of the community to participate in development projects and programs. In Kenya, these participatory local governance structures and avenues have not been widely studied. The study assessed the influence of gender equality in the management committee on community-led monitoring of borehole water projects. The study was based on the theory of participation which attributes the success of engagement between project stakeholders to four favorable factors: context, design, power, and scale of the engagement. A case study research design was used. The study population comprised the household heads, borehole water project management committee members, and officials of the County government of Meru County, as key informants. Interview schedules and a questionnaire were used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Systematic random sampling was used to select 38 household heads. All the 12 members of the Mbeu cattle dip community borehole management committee, one Mbeu Ward administration official, and 10 officials of the Directorate of Monitoring and Evaluation in Meru County formed part of the study sample. The study showed that superficially, there is no gender-based discrimination in community-led monitoring of borehole water projects. The study showed that County Government of Meru policies meant to promote gender equality are not well cascaded or implemented at the local level. The study concluded that the management committee is pivotal in community-led monitoring of borehole water projects and broadly, implementation of community-led development initiatives. The study recommends that authorities ought to educate members of the community about patterns of gender-based discrimination. </em></p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kimathi Joseph, Dr. Judy Mwangi https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/18 A Study of the Management of Student Records in Academic Registrars’ Offices in Kenyan Universities 2022-07-18T16:15:53+00:00 Elizabeth Metto jepkorireliza@gmail.com Mwita Miriam bagenim@gmail.com Kinuthia Benson N. kinuthiabn@gmail.com <p><em>This study assessed the management of student records in academic registrars’ offices in Kenyan universities. A descriptive survey design was adopted in carrying out the study. The study targeted 49 chartered private and public universities in Kenya. The researcher classified the universities into private and public, and further, into two sets; those in the western region and eastern region of Kenya. The researcher then purposively chose in each region the youngest and the oldest public universities and similarly private universities. Questionnaire was used in the collection of data. The findings show that were clear ways of storing students’ records.&nbsp; However, the adoption of electronic records management was fifty-fifty. Though most of the universities had some form of electronic document use, some had not fully embraced electronic records management. The major challenges encountered were information breakdown from the registry, problems with credit control among others. The following recommendations were made based on the findings of this study; academic registrar’s office need to have a clear policy explaining the “who, where, when and what” of records management; there is need to avail adequate finance for record management processes starting from record creation, storage, communication and retrieval as well as disposal; right equipment such as cabinets, safes, locks, fire-extinguishers, trolleys, etc. should be procured; the university should develop and constantly upgrade recommended record management systems with extensive server capabilities to meet the needs of all students and other users; and members of staff should also be periodically trained to strengthen their capacity to handle the changing demands of record management as most of it migrates online.</em></p> 2022-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Metto , Mwita Miriam , Kinuthia Benson N. https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/16 Impacts of a Telecentre on a Rural Community in Kenya 2022-07-09T20:20:46+00:00 Rosabel Wanjiku Githinji editor.ajernet@gmail.com <p><em>Telecentres are an important resource in enabling millions of people in rural areas to participate in their development while bridging the global digital divide (Rogers &amp; Shukla, 2001). Since most of these people in the rural areas are unlikely ever to own their computers, community telecentres increase access to ICT and are viewed as community resources that offer access to information and other services that community members need to make informed decisions to improve their livelihoods. Championing of the telecentre model by governments and international development partners has increased in developing countries. However, there is little information on how rural communities benefit from telecentre projects and whether information accessed through telecentres impacts their lives and livelihoods. The study set to find out whether information obtained from the Telecentre improves people’s welfare. Finally, the study looked at the prospects of telecentres in rural development. The study was based on fieldwork carried out in Nguruman Telecentre through evaluative and descriptive research designs and used both ethnographic the participatory research approach. This study shows there is a complex relationship between ownership, management, and sustainability of telecentres that needs further research. Nevertheless, community participation in telecentre activities is an essential element for the sustainability of such initiatives at the community level. Key informants pointed out and affirmed community participation. This is what improves local ownership according to Etta &amp; Parvyn-Wamahiu (2003), which brings about the success and sustainability of the telecentre. Ownership suggests control but it is evident that the Nguruman community was not in control of the CKC. Instead, the CKC staff and volunteers who were employees of Arid Land Information Network- Eastern Africa usually had more say in the decisions affecting the daily activities of the center. Telecentres have a definite role in the development process. They play an important role in information and education, which is key to development and seen as an important human right. Therefore there is a need to provide support in initiating, maintaining, and running telecentres. This study suggests forging partnerships (also referred to by a key informant as public-private partnerships - PPPs) for the financial sustainability of telecentres in rural communities.&nbsp; The design of telecentres should have non-users in mind. This requires taking into consideration the practical needs and realities of non-users who have reservations about using the centers, whether this is because of inappropriate location, access in terms of opening hours, lack of trained staff, and poor publicity.</em></p> 2022-07-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rosabel Wanjiku Githinji https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/28 Determinants of Humanitarian Logistics Performance to Effective Disaster Relief Operations in Addressing Pandemics in Tanzania 2022-08-28T13:48:50+00:00 Yohana Arsen Rutaba yarutaba@gmail.com <p><em>The study assessed the key areas in humanitarian organizations to pave the way to effectiveness in disaster relief operations. The study employed a sequential explanatory research design; this design was used purposely by converging quantitative and qualitative data with a sample of 150 respondents from humanitarian organizations.&nbsp; Questionnaires and key informant interviews were used to collect data. The nature and strength of association between independent variables and dependent variables were tested using multiple regressions. The study found that the determinants of humanitarian logistics performance for effective disaster relief operations include having trained experts, a dedicated humanitarian organization, supportive policies, supportive financial resources, and dedicated logistics service providers. Therefore, it was concluded that the overall effectiveness of disaster relief operations depends on proper structures in humanitarian logistics that capture efficiency in logistics cooperation and involvement of logistics service in providing disaster relief operations. The study recommended that the government should recognize the importance of public-private partnerships in disaster relief operations and ensure proactive actions in having reliable infrastructure and empowering the operations of logistics service providers and humanitarian organizations and agencies in Tanzania. This study could aid policymakers to institute frameworks that could guide nations to undertake procedures that may enhance the movement of people and materials to the affected areas and cooperation between stakeholders. The study had theoretical implications that enrich the structuring of stakeholders in stakeholders theory and add knowledge on this undertaking and strengthening humanitarian logistics systems.</em></p> 2022-09-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rutaba Yohana Arsen https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/10 Participation of Members and the Development of Dairy Cooperatives in Kiambu County 2022-06-24T16:07:30+00:00 Peter Githinji Mugwe mugweg@gmail.com <p>This study sought to examine the effect of the adoption of technology on the development of Dairy Cooperatives; evaluate the effect of financial access on the development of cooperatives; find out how managerial skills affect the development of Dairy Cooperatives in Kiambu County and; determine how the participation of members affect the development of Dairy Cooperatives in Kiambu County. Grounded on the Social Capital and Resource-Based Theory, this study adopted the descriptive research design. In this study, the target population was 59,635 registered Dairy Cooperative members while the sample size was 398 respondents who were picked via stratified random sampling. Data collection involved questionnaires that contained 5-point scale Likert-type statements. Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out. In this case, tests such as central tendency (mean), frequencies, percentages, and standard deviation in addition to Pearson correlation were utilized. The findings show that membership participation had a statistically significant influence on the development of dairy cooperatives (r=.398, p&lt;0.001). These findings lead to the conclusion that increased member subscriptions affected the success of Cooperatives projects. Increasing members’ participation would increase their buy-in of the development projects of the dairy cooperatives; augmenting their sustainability. This would go on to enhance their development. The study recommends that member participation should be strengthened and embedded in all management processes of the dairy cooperatives to enhance their support of projects.</p> 2022-06-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Peter Githinji Mugwe https://ajernet.net/ojs/index.php/ajernet/article/view/26 Strategic Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Retention in a Private Commercial Bank in Nairobi County, Kenya 2022-08-15T18:25:07+00:00 Leonard Ngero Kiragu kiraguh06@gmail.com Moses Siruri Marwa marwasiruri@gmail.com <p><em>Employees are always regarded as an organization's biggest asset because the workforce is a major component of every business. Organizations cannot deliver business results, satisfy organizational goals, or reach their financial targets without personnel. The majority of corporations understand how crucial human resources are to their businesses' success. It is impossible to overstate the importance of employing excellent strategic human resource management techniques, particularly when dealing with a dynamic workforce. Employee replacement costs are high, it might be challenging to locate qualified candidates, and expenditures on training are currently less secure, making employee turnover expensive. This study sought to </em><em>investigate the relationship between Strategic Human Resource Management practices and employee retention in a Private Commercial Bank in </em><em>Nairobi County, Kenya</em><em>. </em><em>Specifically, the study sought to determine the effects of recruitment, career management practices, and training on employee retention in the Private</em><em> Commercial Bank. </em><em>The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design. </em><em>The target population consisted of all the 198 employees of the Private Commercial Bank</em><em>. </em><em>This study used simple random sampling to determine the employees who participated in the study. The sample size was 93 respondents which was determined by the use of the formula developed by Yamane. </em><em>&nbsp;</em><em>The study utilized primary data that was collected by the use of questionnaires that were administered to the employees.</em><em> The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics through the use of means and standard deviation. Further, regression analysis was used to test the relationship between the study variables. The results indicated a positive significant correlation between recruitment and employee retention (r = 0. 419, p-value=0.000)</em><em>,</em><em> significant positive correlation between career management and employee retention (r = 0.230, p-value=0.000) and a </em><em>significant</em><em> positive correlation between training and employee retention (r = 0.589, p-value=0.000). The study concluded that employee recruitment was crucial for improving staff retention in the private commercial bank in Kenya. Additionally, the research found a strong correlation between staff recruitment and retention. The study came to the conclusion that career management practices, as a strategic HRM practice, had a substantial impact on improving employee retention in the bank, particularly in light of the fact that workers respond favorably to possibilities for career growth and promotion. The study also came to the conclusion that career management methods and employee retention had a very strong favorable association. The study also came to the conclusion that training, as a strategic HRM practice, was essential to improving employee retention, particularly in light of the idea that when organizations support employees' training, everyone is given a clear understanding of their responsibilities as well as the skills and knowledge required to do their jobs. </em></p> 2022-08-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Leonard Ngero Kiragu, Moses Siruri Marwa