Impact of Irrigation on Rice Cultivation Methods among Small Farmers in North Central, Nigeria
Keywords:Cultivation, Farmers, Irrigation, Multinomial Logit, Rice Cultivation
Rice production and irrigation are inextricably linked, irrespective of the adopted cultivation system. The study was to examine the impact of irrigation on rice cultivation systems among rice farmers in north central Nigeria. The study involved the survey of 196 active rice farmers in the previous planting season using copies of well-structured questionnaires administered by trained enumerators, and selection of rice farmers was achieved through multistage sampling procedure. Specific objectives were to describe socioeconomic and input characteristics, profiling of irrigation water sources, identification of adopted source of irrigation water by rice farmers, assessment of cultivation system adoption and intensity of rice production and examining factors militating against access to seamless access to irrigation water. Various analytical tools were employed to achieve the objectives, such as descriptive statistics, multinomial logit (MLN), endogenous switching regression (EWR) and Likert Rating Scale (LRS). The result indicated that farm size, farming experience, and annual income were on average of 2.39ha, 23.6 years, and N 646,145.66k. Well water was the most used irrigation source by farmers, with the highest score of 85.2%. The multinomial logit result indicated that the use of boreholes was positively and significantly influenced by distance to water source and years of education, while the use of dams was influenced by gender and the number of cooperative trainings that rice farmers attended during the season. Switching regression results suggested that the correlation coefficient rho_1 and rho_2 were positively significant at p<0.01 and p 0.05, respectively, suggesting that an individual rice farmer who chose to adopt swamp cultivation system had lower rice output in the category than a random individual from the sample would have realized. Farmers were constrained by the shortage of water arising from keen competition for water between them and the herdsmen, while it was recommended that efforts be made to ensure that an early-maturing, drought-resistant, and short-duration rice variety be provided for optimal production that will keep pace with the food needs of an ever-increasing population.
Adegbola, P.Y., & Gardebroek, C. (2007). The effect of information sources on technology adoption and modification decision. Agricultural Economics, 37, 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2007.00222.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2007.00222.x
Adela, F.A., & Aurbacher, J. (2018). "Access to irrigation water-poverty nexus: Application of an Endogenous Switching Regression in Ethiopia." International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Adeola, R.G., Adebayo, O.O., & Oyelere, G.O. (2008). Effects of the Federal Government Special Rice Programme on Rice Yields and Farmers' Income in Oyo State. International Journal of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development, 1 (1), 1-6.
Adubi, A.A. & Daramola, A.G. (1996).An empirical analysis of risk and expected return in small scale agriculture in Nigeria. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 35(4), Oct.-Dec. 1996.384-397.
Akinyosoye, V.O. (2005). Government and agriculture in Nigeria: analysis of politics, programmes and administration. Macmillan Nigeria Publisher, New Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Oyo State. Pp. 25-33.
AlHumaid, J., Ali, S., & Farooq, I. (2020). The psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and coping with them in Saudi Arabia. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(5), 505-507. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000623. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000623
Awulachew, S.B., & Ayana, M. (2011). Performance of irrigation: An assessment at different scales in Ethiopia. Experimental Agriculture, 47 (S1), 57-69. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479710000955 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479710000955
Beke, T.E. (2012). Institutional constraint and adoption of improved rice varieties: economic evidence from Ivory Coast. Revue d'Etudes en Agriculture et environment, 92(2), 117-141. https://doi.org/10.3406/reae.2011.2361 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/reae.2011.2361
Central Bank of Nigeria (2018). Central Bank of Nigeria Annual Report. Central Bank of Nigeria Corporate Head Office 33, Tafawa Balewa Way Central Business District P.M.B. 0187 Garki, Abuja Website: www.cbn.gov.ng
Coppus, R. (2021). Global distribution of land degradation. Thematic background report for SOLAW 2021. Rome, FAO. (Also available at https://www.fao.org/land-water).
Dugue, P., Djamen Nana P., Faure, G., & Yves (2015). Dynamics of Adoption of conservation agriculture on family farms: from technology to innovation processes. Cahiers d'Agricultures, 24, 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1684/agr.2015.0748 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1684/agr.2015.0748
Ezedinma, C. (2008). "Impact of Trade on Domestic Rice production and Challenges of Self Sufficiency in Nigeria." Conference paper presented at Rice Policy ad Food Security in sub-Saharan Africa at Africa Rice Center (WARDA) Cotonou, Benin Republic.Kormawa p and Ture A. A. (eds.) workshop proceedings pp. 141-159.
FAO & UN-Water. (2021). Progress on level of water stress: Global status and acceleration needs for SDG indicator 6.4.2. Rome. 96 pp. (also available at http://www.fao.org/3/cb6241en/cb6241en.pdf).
FAO. (2014). "Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks 19990-2011 Analysis," F.N. Tubiello, M. Salvatore, R.D. Cóndor Golec, A. Ferrara, S. Rossi, R. Biancalani, S. Federici, H. Jacobs, A. Flammini. FAO Statistics Division Working Paper Series ESS/14-02
FAO. (2018b). Predict, plan, prepare: Stop drought becoming famine - final report. International seminar on drought & agriculture. Rome, FAO. https://www.fao.org/3/bs902e/bs902e.pdf.
FAO. (2017). Watershed management in action: Lessons learned from FAO projects. Rome. 170 pp. (also available at http://www.fao.org/3/i8087e/i8087e.pdf)
FAOSTAT. (2020). The state of food and agriculture 2020. Overcoming water challenges in agriculture. Rome. 210 pp. (also available a https://www.fao.org/3/cb1447en/cb1447en.pdf).
Food and Agriculture Organization (2022). A rapid review of effective financing for policy, implementation and patnership addressing drought risk. In King, C., Salman, M., Tsegai, D. and Naqvi, M. 2022. A rapid review of effective financing for policy, implementation and partnerships addressing drought risks. Rome, FAO. https://doi.org/10.4060/cb9971en.
Fuglie, K.O. & Bosch, D.J. (1995). Economic and Environmental implications of Soil Nitrogen Testing: "A Switching Regression Analysis". American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 77, 891-900. https://doi.org/10.2307/1243812 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1243812
Guardian. (2022). "Rice pyramid and Nigeria's production puzzle." Nigerian Guardian Newspaper, 22nd April, 2022.
Gujarati, N.D. (2004). Basic econometrics. TATA McGraw-Hill Patel Nagar, New Delhi 110008.
Hannah R., & Saleemul H. (2005). Climate change: Biodiversity and livelihood impacts. In: Carmenza R., Markku K. and Lucio P. (Eds): Tropical forests and adaptation to climate change in search of synergies. Center for International Forestry Research Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang Bogor Barat 16680, Indonesia.
Idachaba, F.S. (2006). Good intentions are not enough. Collected essays on government and Nigerian Agriculture, Volume 1, The agricultural policy process. University Press Plc, Ibadan, Oyo State. Pp. 15-22.
Iloeje, O. (2007). New Geography for senior secondary school. University Press Limited, Jericho, Ibadan. Pp 65-78.
Kebbeh, M., Haefale, S., &Fagade, S.O. (2003). "Challenges for Improving irrigated rice productivity in Nigeria." Project Report: The Nigerian Rice in a Competive World: Constraint, Opportunities and Strategic Choices. Abijan: WARDA pp. 24. [Online] http//:pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADB849.pdf Assessed 12 May, 2015.
Lee, L.F. (1978). Unionism and Wage Rates: A simulation equation model with quantitative and limited dependent variables. International Economic Review, 19, 418-433. https://doi.org/10.2307/2526310 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2526310
Li, W., Li, W., & Li Z (2004). Irrigation and fertilizer effects on water use and yield of spring wheat in Semi-Arid regions. Agricultural Water Management 6:35-46 [Online] http//dxdoiorg/10.1016/.agwat 2003.12.002 Assessed 25 June. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2003.12.002
Lowder, S.K., Sánchez, M.V., & Bertini, R. (2019). "Farms, family farms, farmland distribution and farm labour: what do we know today?" FAO Agricultural Development Economics Working Paper (FAO) Eng No. 19-08.
National Population Commission. (2006). National Population Census Figure, 2006. Abuja Headquarter office, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria.
Siebert, S. & P. Döll (2007). Irrigation water use - A global perspective. In: Lozán, J.L., H. Grabl, P. Hupfer, L. Menzel & C-D. Schönwiese (Eds.). Global Change: Enough Water for all? Universität Hamburg / GEO, 104-107 (PDF) Irrigation water use - A global perspective.
Tambo, J.A., & Abdoulaye, T. (2012). Climate change and agricultural technology adoption: The case of drought resistant maize in rural Nigeria. Mitigation and Adaptation strategies for global change, 17(3), 277-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9325-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9325-7
Temple, L., Kwa, M., Tetan, G., & Bikoi, A.J. (2011). Organizational determinants of technological innovation in food agriculture in food agriculture and impacts on sustainable development. Agronics. Sustainable Development, 31, 745-755. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0017-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-011-0017-1
Tubiello, F.N., Salvatore, M., Rossi, S., Ferrara, A., Fitton, N., & Smith, P. (2013). The FAOSTAT GHG database. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 1- 10. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/015009
Turetsky, M.R., Benjamin, W.A., & Miriam, C.J. (2019). Carbon release through abrupt permafrost thaw. Nature Geoscience, 13(2), 8.DOI: 10.1038/s41561-019-0526-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0526-0
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Isaac Olusegun Ogunwande
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.