Effect of School Leadership Practices on the Commitment of Secondary School Teachers in Musanze District, Rwanda





Development, Evaluation, Leadership, Motivation, Public School, School, Supervision, Training


This study examined the effect of school leadership practices on the commitment of secondary school teachers in public schools within Musanze district, Rwanda. The specific objectives were to assess the influence of teachers' motivation, supervision, evaluation, and training and development practices on teachers' commitment to work. This research was guided by two theories: Herzberg two factor theory and Max Weber bureaucracy theory. By using a correlational research design, the study employed a quantitative research approach in collecting and analyzing data. The closed-ended questionnaire was filled out by 167 teachers and 44 school leaders, who were randomly selected from a target population of 305. Reliability was confirmed by a pilot study using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data for the first, second, third and fourth research questions on school leadership practices and teachers’ commitment to work was analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation) and regression analysis, while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The findings revealed significant effects of all four leadership practices on teachers' commitment in Musanze district. Notably, motivation practices (β=0.469, P value <0.05), supervision practices (β=0.368, P-value < 0.05), evaluation practices (β=0.495, P value < 0.05), and training and development practices (β=0.081, P value < 0.05) all exhibited positive linear relationships with teachers' commitment. This study recommends that the leadership in schools under examination should foster teachers' commitment to their work in order to improve student outcomes, which is essential for overall school success.


Abouraia, M., & Othman, S. (2017). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions: The direct effects among bank representatives. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7, 404-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ajibm.2017.74029


Alazzam, N. M. A. (2022). Challenges facing the educational supervision methods of the Ministry of Education in light of Saudi Vision 2030. Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 13(4), 390-401. https://doi.org/10.47750/jett.2022.13.04.050 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47750/jett.2022.13.04.050

Althaus, C. (2013). The administrative sherpa and the journey of public service leadership. Administration & Society, 45(6), 704-729.

Altun, B. P. (2020). The actors of teacher supervision. Journal of Human Sciences, 17(2), 284-303. https://doi.org/10.14687/jhs.v17i1.5880 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14687/jhs.v17i1.5880

Boucaud, A. A. (2017). A correlational study examining the relationship between restorative practices and school climate in selected elementary schools in a large mid-Atlantic urban school district. Educational Leadership Common.

Bunyamin, C. Y. (2017). Commitment to the teaching profession. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4(2), 93-97. https://doi.org/10.23918/ijsses.v4i2sip93 DOI: https://doi.org/10.23918/ijsses.v4i2sip93

Darling-Hammond, L. W. (2017). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.

Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher professional development. Learning Policy Institute. https://doi.org/10.54300/122.311 DOI: https://doi.org/10.54300/122.311

Dlamini, M. R. (2019, December 31). Effects of poor leadership styles in Lubombo secondary schools. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 9(24), 87-95.

Farber, B. V. (2014). Informal sources of supervision in clinical training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(11), 1062-1072. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22127


Hamed, T. (2016). Validity and reliability of the research instrument. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 5(3), 26-36.

Hanifi, P. R. (2017). The effect of bureaucratic school structure on teacher leadership culture: A mixed study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practices, 17(6), 2176-2201.

Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2012). Professional capital: Transforming teaching in every school. Teachers College Press.

Hattie, J. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487

Ingersoll, R. M. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: An organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312038003499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312038003499

Innocenti, U. (2021). Time to teach, teacher attendance and time on task in secondary schools. UNICEF.

Inten, R. (2021). Teacher recruitment negotiations: A form of early childhood education strategy in Indonesia. Advances in Social Sciences, Education and Humanities Research, 81-85.

Johnson, D. (2017). The role of teachers in motivating students to learn. Journal of Graduate Studies in Education, 9(1), 46-49.

Kanya, N. R. (2021). Factors affecting teachers' performance. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(4), 1462-1468. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v10i4.21693 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v10i4.21693

Kaur, P. (2019). Training and development. New Century Publications.

Kettle, M. (2015). Achieving effective supervision. IRISS Institute for Research and Innovation in Social Services.

Kitterlin, M. (2014). Festival motivation and loyalty factors. Tourism & Management Studies, 10(1), 119-126.

Kwok, K. T. (2016). Teacher demoralization, disempowerment and school administration. Qualitative Research in Education, 5(2), 200-225. https://doi.org/10.17583/qre.2016.1883 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17583/qre.2016.1883

Leithwood, K., & Sun, J. (2008). Linking leadership to student learning: The contributions of leader efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(4), 496-528. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X08321501 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X08321501

Maxwell, J. (1999). Developing the leader within you. Thomas Nelson Inc.

Mujere, N. (2016). Mixed methods research for improved scientific study. IGI Global.

Musah, M. B. (2018). Head teacher-teacher relationship and its effect on teacher's trust in Malaysian high performing schools. International Journal of Educational Management, 32(3), 479-497. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-10-2016-0204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-10-2016-0204

Mustafa, A. (2017). The effects of teacher commitment on students' achievement: A case study in Iraq. International Journal of Academic Research and Social Sciences, 7(1), 417-426. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3475 DOI: https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3475

Ndahayo, S. (2023). Motivation factors and teacher retention in private secondary schools of Rwanda. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 7(4), 846-860. https://doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.7470 DOI: https://doi.org/10.47772/IJRISS.2023.7470

Nkiliye, G. N. (2021). Hindrances to quality of basic education in Rwanda. Rwanda Journal of Education, 5(1), 54-67.

Noshaba, M. H. (2023). Impact of teachers' motivation on students' performance. Global Educational Studies Review, 7(2), 444-453. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31703/gesr.2023(VIII-II).40


Okeke, C. I., & Mtyuda, P. N. (2017). Teacher job dissatisfaction: Implications for teacher sustainability and social transformation. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 19(1), 54-68. https://doi.org/10.1515/jtes-2017-0004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jtes-2017-0004

Oketcho, E. J. (2019). Headteachers' management styles and teachers' role performance in secondary schools in Tororo District, Uganda. Journal of Education, 00(0), 1-10.

Olohundare, S. K. (2020). Assessment of teachers' dedication, discipline, knowledge and skills in Kwara state basic schools, Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(4), 536-542. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v14i4.16524 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v14i4.16524

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2021). Teaching quality in secondary education in Rwanda: Evidence from STEM teachers. Qualitative Research in Education, 10(1), 32-54.

Phocas, B., & Andala, H. O. (2020). Teachers' instructional supervision and students' academic performance in Rwanda: A case of core sciences subjects in lower secondary schools in Kayonza District. Journal of Education, 3(4), 21-36.

Pont, B., Nusche, D., & Moorman, H. (2008). Improving school leadership (Vol. 1: Policy and practice). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/education/school/Improving-school-leadership.pdf

Rajesh, S. (2016). The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators on employee engagement in information organizations. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57(3), 197-207. https://doi.org/10.3138/jelis.57.2.197 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12783/issn.2328-2967/57/2/11

REB. (2021). Continuous Professional Development Certificate in Educational Mentorship and Coaching Module 2 Leading and Managing for Professional Development of Head Teacher (5th ed.). Techno Market Ltd.

REB. (2021). School Library Guidelines. United States Agency for International Development.

Sahito, Z., & Vaisanen, P. (2017). Factors affecting job satisfaction of teacher educators: Empirical evidence from the universities of Sindh Province of Pakistan. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 6(1), 5-30. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n4p122 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v6n4p122

Sen, B. G. (2022). Teachers' views on classroom rules in basic education. International Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 14(3), 1696-1715.

Shelby, D. G. (2018). Leadership's role in teachers' commitment and retention. International Journal of Education and Research, 6(5), 15-26.

Siti, S. S. (2019). Investigating the validity and reliability of survey attitude towards. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 5(4), 651-661. https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.5.4.651 DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/ijem.5.4.651

Syafira, F. D. (2022). The role of teachers in increasing the reading interest of elementary school students. Journal of Elementary Education, 6(1), 30-43. https://doi.org/10.22460/pej.v6i1.2958 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22460/pej.v6i1.2958

Tarter, W. H. (2011). Positive psychology and educational administration. An Optimistic Research Agenda, 4(1), 427-445. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X10396930 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X10396930

Tesfaw, T. H. (2012). Instructional supervision and its relationship with professional development: Perception of private and government secondary school teachers in Addis Ababa. University of Groningen.

Torregosa, G. L., Fe, B. A., Dy, R. S., Letrondo, J. A., Manalastas, R. D. C., Espina, R. C., Mangubat, R. C., Capuno, R. G., Peteros, E. D., Delos Reyes, N. R. T., & Calasang, V. O. (2024). Strategies in dealing with disruptive behavior of learners with special education needs. Journal of Chemical Health Risks, 14(1), 3150-3171.

UNICEF. (2021). Improved teacher capacity and strong school leadership are key for better school performance. UNICEF.

UR-CE. (2023). Continuous Professional Development Certificate in Educational Mentorship and Coaching, Study Manual, Module 1: Coaching and Mentoring for Professional Development of Headteachers and Teachers (6th ed.). April 2023.

VVOB. (2021). Continuous Professional Development Certificate in Educational Mentorship and Coaching Module 2 Leading and Managing for Professional Development of head teacher (5th Ed.). Kigali: Techno Market Ltd.

World Bank. (2018). Rwanda economic update (Edition 12). World Bank.

World Bank. (2021). The Mali improving education quality and results for all project. Western and Central Africa Region: Education Global Practice.

Yariv, E. (2011, February 8). Deterioration in teachers Performances: Causes and Same Remedies. World Journal of Education, 81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v1n1p81


Yusoff, F. W. (2023, October). Herzberg's two-factor theory of work motivation: Does it work for today's environment. Global Journal of Commerce and Management, G.J.C.M.P., 2(5), 18-22.




How to Cite

Musabwayire, J., & Sikubwabo, C. (2024). Effect of School Leadership Practices on the Commitment of Secondary School Teachers in Musanze District, Rwanda. African Journal of Empirical Research, 5(2), 550–563. https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.5.2.47

Most read articles by the same author(s)