Role of Stakeholders’ Collaboration in the Implementation of School Feeding Programme: A Case of Twelve Years Basic Education Schools in Nyabihu District, Rwanda (2020-2022)



Basic Education, Collaboration, Committees, Feeding, Implementation, Parents, Rwanda, School, Stakeholders, Twelve Years


This study was carried out to assess the role of stakeholders’ collaboration in the implementation of school feeding programme of twelve years basic education schools in Nyabihu District, Rwanda. The study utilized a convergent research strategy to collect both quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously. Questionnaires, interviews, documentations and observation were the techniques employed to obtain the primary data and secondary data. The population of the study comprised of 75 stakeholders. Census sampling was used and samples of 75 stakeholders were drawn. For collecting data, researcher organized well-structured questionnaire; data were edited and sorted for the next stage. The data were presented in statistical tables, with frequencies and percentages for classifications of responses by statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) for easier analysis and interpretation. Data from interview sessions was obtained from 4 chairpersons of school general assembly committees. Data from documentation was obtained from school records whereas data from observation were obtained before and during lunch periods. The results indicated that there is positive and significant effect on the role of parents’ engagement on the implementation of school feeding program in twelve years basic education schools (R=.979, p<0.05). To make implementation of school feeding program very successful, parents should make timely payments for their school food donations. To administer the school feeding program, parents should collaborate closely with school administration. Parents must participate in the school meal program rather than believing that it should only be funded by the government.


Abolade, A., & Ismail, S. M. (2019). Examining stakeholders' partnership in school feeding programme implementation in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Children's Services, 14(4), 243-257.

Ahmed, A. O., Yusuf, S. A., & Matee, S. A. (2020). Stakeholder collaboration and the implementation of school feeding programs in Nigeria. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 32(4), 16-28.

Annan, R., Apprey, C., Agyemang, G., Tuekpe, D. M., Asamoah-Boakye, O., Okonogi, S., Yamauchi, T., & Sakurai, T. (2021). Nutrition education improves knowledge and BMI-for-age in Ghanaian school-aged children. African Health Sciences, 21, 927-941. DOI:

Azarieva, J., Berry, E. M., & Troen, A. (2022). Child food insecurity in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic: urgent need for policy evaluation and reform in Israel's school feeding programs. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 11, 13. DOI:

Baker, I. A., Elwood, P. C., Hughes, J., Jones, M., & Sweetnam, P. M. (1978). School milk and growth in primary school children [Letter]. The Lancet, 312(8089), 575. DOI:

Bélanger, V., Delorme, J., Napartuk, M., Bouchard, I., Meloche, C., Curnier, D., Sultan, S., Laverdière, C., Sinnett, D., & Marcil, V. (2022). Early Nutritional Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating Habits in Pediatric Oncology: A Feasibility Study. Nutrients, 14(5), 1024. DOI:

Bundy, D., Burbano, C., Grosh, M., Gelli, A., Jukes, M., & Drake, L. (2009). Rethinking School Feeding: Social Safety Nets, Child Development and the Education Sector. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank. DOI:

Cheng, M., Adekola, O., Albia, J., & Cai, S. (2021). Employability in higher education: a review of key stakeholders' perspectives. Higher Education Evaluation and Development. DOI:

Christofaro, J. D. G., Tebar, W. R., & Fernandes, R. A. (2019). Stages of physical activity change and psychosocial correlates in adolescents. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 37(1), 7-13.

Colley, P., Myer, B., Seabrook, J., & Gilliland, J. (2019). The Impact of Canadian School Food Programs on Children's Nutrition and Health: A Systematic Review. Canadian journal of dietetic practice and research: a publication of Dietitians of Canada = Revue canadienne de la pratique et de la recherche en dietetique: une publication des Dietetistes du Canada, 80(2), 79–86. DOI:

Cupertino, A., Ginani, V., Cupertino, A.P., & Botelho, R.B.A (2022). School Feeding Programs: What Happens Globally? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 2265. DOI:

Curry, L., Jackson, J., & McLaughlin, M. (2019). Parental involvement in school nutrition program design: Implications for stakeholder satisfaction and program acceptability. Journal of School Health, 89(5), 382-390.

Dar, S., & Sakthivel, D. (2022). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Is still Relevant in the 21st Century. Journal of Learning and Educational Policy, 02(05), 1-9. DOI:

Drake, L., Woolnough, A., Burbano, C., & Bundy, D, (2016). Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries. Retrieved from DOI:

Ekonomou, S. Ι., Hadnađev, M., Gioxari, A., Abosede, O. R., Soe, S., & Stratakos, A. C. (2024). Advancing dysphagia-oriented multi-ingredient meal development: Optimising hydrocolloid incorporation in 3D printed nutritious meals. Food Hydrocolloids, 147(A), 109300. DOI:

Faber, M., de Villiers, A., Hill, J., van Jaarsveld, P. V., Okeyo, A., & Seekoe, E. (2018). Nutrient profile and energy cost of food sold by informal food vendors to learners in primary and secondary schools in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Public Health Nutrition, 22, 521-530. DOI:

Flores, K. (2023). Parental involvement in school-based feeding program. International Journal of Research Studies in Education 12(7), 123-141. DOI:

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Pitman Publishing.

Ganeshu, P., Fernando, T., & Keraminiyage, K. (2023). Barriers to, and Enablers for, Stakeholder Collaboration in Risk-Sensitive Urban Planning: A Systematised Literature Review. Sustainability, 15(5), 4600. DOI:

GCNF. (2019). A global survey of school meals. Program report: Rwanda. Global Child Nutrition Foundation. Retrieved from

GCNF. (2019). A global survey of school meals. Program report: Uganda. Global Child Nutrition Foundation Retrieved from

Hasselskog, M. (2023). Exploiting International Development Ideals. The Rwandan Government's Approach to Local Participation in Light of its Exercise of National Ownership. Forum for Development Studies, 50, 371-395. DOI:

Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2020). How high quality language environments create high quality learning environments. Developmental Psychology Forum, 1(91), 7-11. DOI:

Iddrisu, I., Gunu, I. M., & Abdul-Rahaman, N. (2022). Challenges of school feeding in Ghana: Its effect on enrolment and attendance. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 6(1), 100285. DOI:

Jomaa, L.H., McDonnell, E., & Probart, C. (2011) School Feeding Programs in Developing Countries: Impacts on Children's Health and Educational Outcomes. Nutrition Reviews, 69, 83-98. DOI:

Khatun, M., Rahman, S. N., & Khatun, M. (2023). Impact of Development Opportunities and Compensation on Employee Retention: A Comparative Study on Banking Industry of Bangladesh. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 8, 40-63. DOI:

Kujala, J., Sachs, S., Leinonen, H., Heikkinen, A., & Laude, D. (2022). Stakeholder Engagement: Past, Present, and Future. Business & Society, 61, 1136-1196. DOI:

Kurien, V. V., Shamsuddeen, S., Mahitha, M., & Rasheed, D. S. (2022). Evidence-based decision-making. Journal of Head & Neck Physicians and Surgeons.

Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., & Wood, C. E. (2013). The Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy (v1) of 93 Hierarchically Clustered Techniques: Building an International Consensus for the Reporting of Behavior Change Interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95. DOI:

MINEDUC. (2019). National comprehensive school feeding policy. Ministry of Education, Rwanda.

MINEDUC. (2021). Rwanda school feeding guideline. Ministry of Education, Rwanda.

Molinas, L. and de la Mothe, M.R. (2010). The Multiple Impacts of School Feeding: A New Approach For Reaching Sustainability. In Omamo, S.W., Gentilini, U., Sandström, S., Revolution: From Food Aid to Food Assistance, eds. United Nations World Food Programmme, 217-230, Rome.

Moreira, I. R. J., de Freitas, A. F., junior, A. A., Freitas, A., Bernardo, J., & da Silva, S. M. (2023). Family Farming Cooperatives and Associations and the Institutional Market Created by the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sustainability, 15(6), 5202. DOI:

Mukamana L., Andala, H. O., & Opiyo, D. (2023). School Feeding Program Implementation and Students' Discipline in Twelve Years Basic Education in Rwanda. Journal of Education, 6(3), 58-72. DOI:

Oduya, A., & Mwangi, M. (2019). Challenges facing the feeding programmes in pre-primary schools in difficult circumstances in Kenya. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(8), 2019.

Oso, W, & Onen, D. (2011). Writing research proposal and report: A handbook for Beginning Researchers (Rsvd edn). Nairobi: The Jomo Kenyatta Foundation, Kenya.

Owusu-Nantwi, V., Carvalho, F.D., Dom, B.S., Fiadzigbey, M., Filer, S., Kpekpena, I., Lin, C., Lombardi, D., Lopez, L.E., Ramachandran, A., Tanaka, Y., & Tanabe, S, (2011). Ghana school feeding program: re-tooling for a sustainable future. Retrieved from

Oyefade, S. A. (2014). Administration of Home Grown School Feeding & Health Programme in Osun State (Unpublished MPA Long essay, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife).

Özlü, N. G., Vural, F., Dökümcü, Ü. Z., Özcan, C., & Erdener, H. A. (2022). Nutritional Experiences of Parents of Children Who Had Gastric Transposition Surgery. Clinical Nursing Research, 32, 138-148. DOI:

Pettigrew, S., Pescud, M., & Donovan, R. J. (2012). Stakeholder perceptions of a comprehensive school food policy in Western Australia. Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 108(1), 100-104. DOI:

Qamar, Z., Hagedorn-Hatfield, R., Gray, V., Shilts, M. K., & Cuite, C. (2022). Re-envisioning Nutrition Instruction in Higher Education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 54(3), 199-200. DOI:

Richter, L., Griesel, D., & Rose, C. (2000). The psychological impact of a school feeding project, in Donald D, Dawes A, & Louw J (eds) Addressing Childhood Diversity (pages 74-93). David Philip: Cape Town.

Schwieters, N. (2023). Corporate Governance.Verantwortliche Steuerung und Überwachung in Zeiten globaler Krisen. Schäffer-Poeschel. DOI:

Silva, A. de A., Gubert, F., Barbosa Filho, V. B., Freitas, R., Vieira-Meyer, A., Pinheiro, M. M., & Rebouças, L. (2021). Health promotion actions in the School Health Program in Ceará: nursing contributions. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 74(1), e20190769. DOI:

Smith, J., Doe, A., & Johnson, B. (2017). The role of parental involvement in school feeding programs: A systematic review. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 49(5), 394-402.

UNESCO. (2005). Challenges of implementing free primary education in Kenya. Nairobi: UNESCO.

Yin, R.K. (2014). Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.



How to Cite

Ndayishimye, I., & Dushimimana, J. D. D. (2024). Role of Stakeholders’ Collaboration in the Implementation of School Feeding Programme: A Case of Twelve Years Basic Education Schools in Nyabihu District, Rwanda (2020-2022). African Journal of Empirical Research, 5(2), 426–437.

Most read articles by the same author(s)