Non-standard Working Practices and Nurses’ Job Performance: Experience from Public Hospitals in Tanzania




Healthcare, Job Performance, Non-Standard Working Practices, Schedule Intensity, Schedule Variation


Non-standard working practices are common among nurses because they spend more time directly caring for patients than other healthcare professionals. Thus, nurses’ performance is impacted by how work is organized, whereas various component of the working practice may lead to a decrease in performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of non-standard working practices on performance of nurses in public hospitals in Tanzania. Specifically, the study focused on assessing the influence of schedule variation, schedule uncertainty, and schedule intensity on performance of nurses in Tanzanian public hospitals. The study adopted descriptive survey research design using qualitative and quantitative methods. Stratified random sampling technique was used, whereas a sample size of 381 nurses was randomly chosen from a target population of 404. Quantitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis technique whereas qualitative data were analyzed by the use of multiple linear regression, one-way Analysis of Variance, independent t-test, and Pearson correlation. Qualitative data were entered, coded and analyzed using summative content analysis and presented in percentages, in tables, figures and charts. Correlation analysis was used to test the direction of relationship between the independent variables and dependent variable. Multiple regressions were used to test whether schedule variation, schedule uncertainty, and schedule intensity had any influence on nurses’ performance. The study established that schedule variation, schedule uncertainty, and schedule intensity contributed negatively to nurses’ performance. Furthermore, the study approved all three study hypothesis as it was found that all schedule variation, schedule uncertainty and schedule intensity had significant statistical influence on job performance of nurses. The study concluded that exposure to non-standard working practices were common among nurses in public hospitals in Tanzania. Further, the study concluded that nurses in the study area were more affected by schedule variation and schedule uncertainty. The study recommended the adoption of strategies aimed at minimizing the effects non-standard schedules to promote nurses’ performance.


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How to Cite

Nnko, E. E. (2024). Non-standard Working Practices and Nurses’ Job Performance: Experience from Public Hospitals in Tanzania. African Journal of Empirical Research, 5(2), 302–315.