Human Factors Contributing to Accidents and Disasters in Road Transport of Petroleum Products in Kenya

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.5.1.18

Keywords:

Disaster Risk Reduction, Human Factors, Petroleum Products, Road Tanker Transportation, Tanker Drivers

Abstract

Over the past few decades, Africa has witnessed enormous increase in the number of accidents take occur during road transport of petroleum products. Some of these accidents escalated into disasters because of release of products, with subsequent explosion and fire, resulting in several injuries and fatalities. With the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), the focus is on disaster risk reduction, rather than disaster response. This paper identifies human factors as a major cause of road transport accidents that lead to disasters when petroleum products are released. The study area was Kenya, but the findings are applicable across the continent.  The Tripod Beta methodology, an incident investigation tool, was applied to analyse some of the disasters that had occurred in the downstream petroleum sub-sector in Kenya. The analysis identified root causes of accidents and highlighted the need to focus on tanker drivers as the key stakeholders for risk reduction. The root causes were applied in the development of the questionnaire that was used in a survey. The survey was carried out using random sampling, with a sample size of 391 tanker drivers. The study concluded that tanker drivers in the age group of 30-40 years, with 6-10 years’ driving experience and minimum educational level of secondary school, displayed the best performance in prevention of accidents and spills that could lead to disasters. Tanker drivers who meet these criteria should be the target of recruitment by transporters, followed by structured safety training, to achieve Goal Zero: no accident, no spill, and no disaster in the industry.

References

Abbasi, T., Ramyapriya, R., Tauseef, S. M., & Abbasi, S. A. (2017). Accidents occurring during transportation of hazardous substances and modeling of their consequences. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Mathematics, 6(8), 185-219.

Ahmed, S. K., Mohammed, M. G., Abdulqadir, S. O., El-Kader, R. G. A., El-Shall, N. A., Chandran, D., Rehman, M. E. U., & Dhama, K. (2023). Road traffic accidental injuries and deaths: A neglected global health issue. Health science reports, 6(5), e1240. https://doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.1240 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.1240

Al-Masaeid, H. R. (1996). Fuel tanker accidents: Causes and safety measures from driver's perspective. Journal of Traffic Medicine, 24(1-2), 49-53.

BBC News. (2020, September 7). Nigeria fuel tanker explosion kills 25 in Lokoja. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-54262443

Bhattacharjee, G., Neogi, S., & Das, S. K. (2011). Safety knowledge of LPG auto-drivers and LPG tank drivers. Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, 1, 101-107. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2011.13011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojsst.2011.13011

De Landre, J., Gibb, G., & Waters, N. (2006). Using incident investigation tools proactively for incident prevention. Safety Wise Solutions Pty Ltd. Presented at ANZASASI 2006.

DW (Deutsche Welle) Global Media Forum. (2019). Tanzania: Fuel tanker blast kills dozens. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/tanzania-fuel-tanker-blast-kills-dozens/a-49976036

Eboli, L., Forciniti, C., & Mazzula, G. (2019). Factors influencing accident severity: Analysis by road accident type. Paper presented at the 22nd EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2019, September 18-20, 2019. Transportation Research Procedia, 47, 2020.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2020.03.120 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2020.03.120

Energy Institute. (2015). Guidance on using Tripod Beta in the investigation and analysis of incidents, accidents, and business losses. London: The Energy Institute.

EPRA (Energy and Petroleum Regulatory Agency, Kenya) (2020). List of registered petroleum road tankers. Transport of Petroleum Products by Road. https://www.epra.go.ke/services/petroleum/licencing-information/ (accessed 7th August 2022)

Hordofa, G. G., Assegid, S., Girma, A., & Weldemarium, T. D. (2018). Prevalence of fatality and associated factors of road traffic accidents among victims reported to Buravu town police stations between 2010 and 2015, Ethiopia. Journal of Transport and Health, 10, 186-193.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2018.06.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2018.06.007

Kenyan News. (2022). LPG tanker explodes in the middle of busy highway. Retrieved from https://www.kenyans.co.ke/news/73071-lorry-carrying-gas-cylinders-explodes-middle-busy-highway (accessed January 27, 2024)

Lofti, S., Honarvar, A. R., & Gholamzadeh. (2019). Analysis and identification of the hidden relationships between effective factors in the mortality rate caused by road accidents. Chinese Journal of Traumatology, 22, 233-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2018.11.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjtee.2018.11.004

Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, A. G. (1999). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. African Center for Technological Studies.

Mutugi, M. W., & Maingi, S. G. (2011). Disasters in Kenya: A major public concern. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 3(1), 38-42.

Olemo, C. D. (2016). Exploring the major causes of road traffic accidents in Nairobi County. M.Sc. dissertation, University of Nairobi, College of Biological and Physical Sciences, School of Mathematics, November 2016.

Oliver-Smith, A. (1996). Anthropological research on hazards and disasters. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25, 303-328. Annual Reviews Inc. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.25.1.303 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.25.1.303

Omuterema, S. O., & Neyole, E. (2012). An assessment of main aspects of Sachangwan and Nakumatt fire disasters in Kenya (CDMHA Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, June 2012, 20-22).

Ren, J., Jenkinson, I., Wang, J., Xu, D. L., & Yang, J. B. (2008). A methodology to model causal relationships on offshore safety assessment focusing on human and organizational factors. Elsevier Journal of Safety Research, 39(1), 87-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2007.09.009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2007.09.009

Sami, A., Moafian, G., Najafi, A., Aghabeigi, M. R., Yamini, N., Heydari, S. T., & Lankarani, K. (2013). Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents. Chinese Journal of Traumatology, 16(5), 281-285.

Shileche, M. (2012). How can oil tanker disasters in Kenya be mitigated through community-based disaster management approaches (Master's thesis, Oxford Brookes University).

Uzondu, C., Jamson, S., & Lai, F. (2018). Investigating unsafe behaviors in traffic conflict situations: An observational study in Nigeria. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), 6(5), 482-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2018.06.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2018.06.002

Downloads

Published

2024-02-13

How to Cite

Oguntoyinbo, O., China, S., & Obiri, J. (2024). Human Factors Contributing to Accidents and Disasters in Road Transport of Petroleum Products in Kenya. African Journal of Empirical Research, 5(1), 184–194. https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.5.1.18