Gender and Social Exclusion in Lake Victoria Basin: A Case of Mara and Simiyu Regions, Tanzania


  • Bonamax Mbasa Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • Christopher N. Mdoe Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • Raphael N. Jettah Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania



Gender, Social exclusion, Women, Lake-Victoria Basin


Tanzania has undertaken several deliberate measures to address the social exclusion of traditionally marginalised groups. Yet, it is still felt by some people that good measures, strategies, and plans implemented in health and education are not handled at the household level. The study was conducted in Bunda TC, Bunda DC, and Busega DC to assess gender and social exclusion in the Lake Victoria basin. Specifically, examining disparities in household children’s education expectations by gender and investigating gendered differentials in health status and care. This study employed a multistage sampling method, combining random and purposive techniques, to select 447 households. Key informants were purposefully chosen for interviews, and 30 households per village were systematically surveyed. Data were collected through various methods, including documentary review and computer-aided personnel interviews, ensuring comprehensive coverage. Findings revealed that the sex of a child influenced the household expectation of the highest education level of children. Financial expectation determines who should be educated. The girls were on the disadvantageous side. The sex of the household head did not distinguish health status, and the exclusion of health care lies not in differential treatment between males and females but in differing affordability and the availability of health facilities. It is recommended that: the right to education of a girl child should be addressed at the household level; measures to improve health care affordability and availability of health facilities should be ensured; the provision of health insurance for all and free health services for complicated health problems of women should be emphasised.

Author Biographies

Bonamax Mbasa, Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

Dr Bonamax Mbasa Nyarusule is a Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP)-Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza; He has been involved in several research and consultancy activities with different research institutions, among which UNDP- Tanzania on Mainstreaming Climate-Smart Approaches and Intervention into Development Initiatives, Decentralization and Local Governance; Financing for Development: Bridging the Financing Gaps Towards Attaining Global and National Priorities. Ministry of Finance and Planning on Preparing Tanzania National Five-Year Development Plan 2021/2022 to 2025/2026.Tanzania Prime Minister Office on Assessment of Tanzania Local Content. Tanzania Investment Centre on Preparation of Tanzania National Investment Guide 2022.

Raphael N. Jettah, Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

Dr Raphael J. Ndaro is a Lecturer at the Institute of Rural Development Planning-Dodoma. As a Lecturer, his main responsibilities are conducting Training, Research and Consultancy. He has been involved in a number of research and consultancy work, including conducting a Local Content Assessment in Tanzania in 2021, provided by the Prime minister’s office; preparation of the business plan for the project along the SGR corridor in 2021, provided by UNDP; Baseline survey for climate-smart and gender-responsive interventions in five districts in Mara and Simiyu Region in Tanzania.


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How to Cite

Mbasa, B., Mdoe, C. N., & Jettah, R. N. (2024). Gender and Social Exclusion in Lake Victoria Basin: A Case of Mara and Simiyu Regions, Tanzania. African Journal of Empirical Research, 5(1), 216–224.