Gender and Social Exclusion in Lake Victoria Basin: A Case of Mara and Simiyu Regions, Tanzania

Authors

  • Bonamax Mbasa Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • Christopher N. Mdoe Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • Raphael N. Jettah Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.5.1.21

Keywords:

Gender, Social exclusion, Women, Lake-Victoria Basin

Abstract

Tanzania has undertaken several deliberate measures to address the social exclusion of traditionally marginalised groups. Yet, it is still felt by some people that good measures, strategies, and plans implemented in health and education are not handled at the household level. The study was conducted in Bunda TC, Bunda DC, and Busega DC to assess gender and social exclusion in the Lake Victoria basin. Specifically, examining disparities in household children’s education expectations by gender and investigating gendered differentials in health status and care. This study employed a multistage sampling method, combining random and purposive techniques, to select 447 households. Key informants were purposefully chosen for interviews, and 30 households per village were systematically surveyed. Data were collected through various methods, including documentary review and computer-aided personnel interviews, ensuring comprehensive coverage. Findings revealed that the sex of a child influenced the household expectation of the highest education level of children. Financial expectation determines who should be educated. The girls were on the disadvantageous side. The sex of the household head did not distinguish health status, and the exclusion of health care lies not in differential treatment between males and females but in differing affordability and the availability of health facilities. It is recommended that: the right to education of a girl child should be addressed at the household level; measures to improve health care affordability and availability of health facilities should be ensured; the provision of health insurance for all and free health services for complicated health problems of women should be emphasised.

Author Biographies

Bonamax Mbasa, Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

Dr Bonamax Mbasa Nyarusule is a Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Rural Development Planning (IRDP)-Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza; He has been involved in several research and consultancy activities with different research institutions, among which UNDP- Tanzania on Mainstreaming Climate-Smart Approaches and Intervention into Development Initiatives, Decentralization and Local Governance; Financing for Development: Bridging the Financing Gaps Towards Attaining Global and National Priorities. Ministry of Finance and Planning on Preparing Tanzania National Five-Year Development Plan 2021/2022 to 2025/2026.Tanzania Prime Minister Office on Assessment of Tanzania Local Content. Tanzania Investment Centre on Preparation of Tanzania National Investment Guide 2022.

Raphael N. Jettah, Institute of Rural Development Planning - Lake Zone Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania

Dr Raphael J. Ndaro is a Lecturer at the Institute of Rural Development Planning-Dodoma. As a Lecturer, his main responsibilities are conducting Training, Research and Consultancy. He has been involved in a number of research and consultancy work, including conducting a Local Content Assessment in Tanzania in 2021, provided by the Prime minister’s office; preparation of the business plan for the project along the SGR corridor in 2021, provided by UNDP; Baseline survey for climate-smart and gender-responsive interventions in five districts in Mara and Simiyu Region in Tanzania.

References

Abad-Díez, J. M., Calderón-Larrañaga, A., Poncel-Falcó, A., Poblador-Plou, B., Calderón-Meza, J. M., Sicras-Mainar, A., Clerencia-Sierra, M., & Prados-Torres, A. (2014). Age and gender differences in the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in the older population. BMC geriatrics, 14, 75. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-14-75 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-14-75

African Union. (2009). African Union Gender Policy, Rev 2/Feb 10, 2009. Retrieved from https://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/Gender/African_Union_Gender_Policy_2009.pdf

African Union. (2018). AU Strategy for Gender Equality & Women's Empowerment 2018-2028. Retrieved from https://au.int/sites/default/files/documents/36195-doc-au_strategy_for_gender_equality_womens_empowerment_2018-2028_report.pdf

Birchall, J. (2016). Gender, Age and Migration: An extended briefing. Retrieved from https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/20.500.12413/10410/Gender%20Age%20and%20Migration%20Extended%20Briefing.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Bloom, D.E. (2005). Education, Health, and Development. Comparative Education Review, 49(4), 1. Retrieved from https://www.amacad.org/sites/default/files/publication/downloads/ubase_edu_health_dev.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3541980

https://doi.org/10.2307/3541980

Chen, S., & Ravallion, M. (2010). The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(4), 1577-1625. doi:10.1162/qjec.2010.125.4.1577 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2010.125.4.1577

Elizabeth, K. (2011). Education is Fundamental to Development and Growth. Education for Global Development. Retrieved from https://blogs.worldbank.org/education

Grinnell Jr, R. M., and Unrau, Y. A. (2010). Social work research and evaluation: Foundations of evidence-based practice: Oxford University Press

Gupta, A., & Pagan, J. A. (2022). Trends in Reported Health Care Affordability for Men and Women with Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Coverage in the US, 2000 to 2020. JAMA, 328(24), 2448-2450. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.19566 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2022.19566

Hanmer, L., & Klugman, J. (2016). Exploring women's agency and empowerment in developing countries: Where do we stand? Feminist Economics, 22(1), 237-263. https://doi.org/10.1080/13545701.2015.1091087 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13545701.2015.1091087

IDB. (2021). Women in Development. Retrieved from https://www.iadb.org/en/about-us/women-in-development%2C6230.html

Idris, I. (2018). Barriers to women's economic inclusion in Tanzania. Helpdesk Report, 2018.

IFAD. (2014). Multidimensional Poverty Assessment Tool: User's Guide. Rome Italy. Retrieved from www.ifad.org/mpat/resources/users.pdf

Ilesanmi, O. (2018). Women's Visibility in Decision Making Processes in Africa-Progress, Challenges, and Way Forward. Research Topic, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2018.00038 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2018.00038

Kaka, E. J. (2013). Poverty is a Woman Issue in Africa. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 18(6), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-1867782 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-1867782

Lokina, R., Nyoni, J., & Kahyarara, G. (2017). Social policy, gender and labour in Tanzania. THDR 2017: Tanzania Human Development Report (THDR) 2017 Background Paper No. 7 ESRF Discussion Paper 68.

Lugendo, V.N (2019). Factors Influencing Women Participation in Community Development Projects retrieved from http://scholar.mzumbe.ac.tz › bitstream › handle

Nuhu, S., Mpambije, C. J., & Ngussa, K. (2020). Challenges in health service delivery under public-private partnership in Tanzania: stakeholders' views from Dar es Salaam region. BMC Health Services Research, 20(765). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05638-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05638-z

Odero, J. A. (2013). The Dynamics of Child Labour along Fishing Beaches of Lake Victoria: A Case Study of Sori Beach in Migori County (Thesis, University of Nairobi, Kenya).

Oleribe O., Momoh J., Uzochukwu BSC., Mbofana F., Adebiyi A., Barbera T., Williams R., Taylor- Robinson SD. (2019). Identifying Key Challenges Facing Healthcare Systems. In: Africa And Potential Solutions. Int J Gen Med. 2019; 12:395-403. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S223882 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S223882

Owens, G. M. (2008). Gender differences in health care expenditures, resource utilization, and quality of care. Journal of Manag Care Pharm, 14(3), 2-6. https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2008.14.S3-A.2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2008.14.S3-A.2

Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2019). Gender Ratio: Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/gender-ratio

Semkwiji, D. (2009). Challenges and Opportunities Towards Social Integration and Inclusion: The Tanzania Experience. United Nations.

Shang, B. (2022). Tackling Gender Inequality: Definitions, Trends, and Policy Designs. International Monetary Fund, Vol. 2022(232), 41. https://doi.org/10.5089/9798400224843.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5089/9798400224843.001

Shisana, O., Rehle, T., Simbayi, L.C., Zuma, K., Jooste, S., Pillay-van-Wyk, V., Mbelle, N., Van Zyl, J., Parker, W., Zungu, N.P., Pezi, S., & the SABSSM III Implementation Team Africa (2010). South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2008: A Turning Tide Among Teenagers? Institute of South Africa, HSRC Press.

UN-DESA. (2016). Transforming the world: The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Retrieved from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf

UNDP. (2022a). Country programme document 2022-2027, UNDP country office, Dar es salaam.

UNDP. (2022b). Gender Equality Strategy 2022-2025. New York, USA: UNDP. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/publications/gender-equality-strategy-2022-2025

UNDP. (2022c). Gender-Responsive Frameworks Development and Implementation Tanzania; Women Access, Participation and Benefit from the National Strategic Projects under Local Content and LED Framework, Mwanza, Tanzania. United Nations Development Programme.

UNDP. (2022d). Gender Equality Strategy 2022-2025. New York, USA.

UNDP. (2022d). Gender Responsive Frameworks Development and Implementation Review, Activity report. UNDP.

UNESCO. (2019). From Access to Empowerment: UNESCO Strategy for Gender Equality in and Through Education 2019-2025. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000369000

United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

United Nations. (2016). Leaving no one behind: the imperative of inclusive development Report on the World Social Situation 2016. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/esa/socdev/rwss/2016/full-report.pdf.

URT. (2019). National guideline for Gender and Respectful care mainstreaming and integration across Reproductive Materteral Newborn Child and Adolescence Health (RMNCAH) Services in Tanzania. Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children. Retrieved from https://www.heardproject.org/wp-content/uploads/Gender-and-RC-Guideline_Final-Version-for-Dissemination-002.pdf

URT. (2021). Tanzania National Five-Year Development Plan 2021/22-2025/26: Realizing competitiveness and industrialization for human development, Dodoma-Tanzania. Retrieved from https://www.tro.go.tz/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/FYDP-III-English.pdf

Vertucci, M. (2021). Child Labour and girls' education in Tanzania. News notes, 46(4)

Wanjala, B.M. (2021). Women, Poverty, and Empowerment in Africa. In: Yacob-Haliso, O., Falola, T. (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of African Women's Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28099-4_106 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28099-4_106

Wanjala, B.M., & Were, M. (2011). Gender disparities and Economic growth in Kenya. A social accounting matrix approach: Inequality. Development and growth. 4(2011), 227-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700902893114 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700902893114

World Bank. (2020). Tanzania Mainland Poverty Assessment. World Bank. http://openknowledge.www.worldbank.org/.

World Economic Forum. (2022). Gender inequality: 15 strategies helping to close the gender gap around the world. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2022/03/gender-gap-strategies-parity-diversity/

Downloads

Published

2024-02-16

How to Cite

Mbasa, B., Mdoe, C. N., & Jettah, R. N. (2024). Gender and Social Exclusion in Lake Victoria Basin: A Case of Mara and Simiyu Regions, Tanzania. African Journal of Empirical Research, 5(1), 216–224. https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.5.1.21