The Significance of Primary Social Studies Content Organization in Fostering Knowledge, Skills, and Values for Cohesion and Integration in Kenya
Keywords:Citizenship Education, Curriculum, National Cohesion, Primary School, Social Studies
The field of Social Studies (SS) plays a crucial role in nurturing students' knowledge, intellectual abilities, and democratic disposition, all of which are essential for active engagement in society. The SS curriculum is designed to address the demands, challenges, and aspirations of society, aiding students in developing appropriate and virtuous values. This study aimed to explore the structure of primary Social Studies content and assess its potential for cultivating the knowledge, skills, and values necessary to promote national cohesion and integration. It adopted a descriptive survey design, employing stratified and random sampling methods to select 1,195 participants, including 940 students, 188 social studies teachers, 47 head teachers from primary schools, and 12 Curriculum Support Officers from six sub-counties within Uasin Gishu County. Data collection involved the use of questionnaires for teachers and CSOs, observation guides for social studies teachers, interview schedules for head teachers and CSOs, and focus group discussion guides for pupils. The data was analyzed descriptively and presented in the form of tables, percentages, means, and figures. The study findings revealed that the primary school Social Studies curriculum is well-structured with a systematic breakdown into smaller units that promote social cohesion. Moreover, it aligns with eight national education goals, six of which are closely linked to interpersonal relationships. However, there is room for improvement, and the study recommends the inclusion of areas that have been omitted, particularly citizenship education, to enhance the curriculum's comprehensiveness in educating students about peaceful coexistence. In conclusion, the study emphasizes the necessity for a more holistic approach that encompasses all facets of citizenship education to better equip students for peaceful and harmonious coexistence in a diverse society.
Achieng-Evensen, C. (2016). Young, urban, professional, and Kenyan?: Conversations surrounding tribal identity and nationhood (Doctoral Dissertation, Chapman University).
Akala, B. M. (2021). Revisiting education reform in Kenya: A case of Competency Based Curriculum (CBC). Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 3(1), 78-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssaho.2021.100107
Boadu, N., Tetteh-Osei, F., Appiah, C., & Bassaw, T. (2022). Evaluation of Social Studies Nature, Goals, and Objectives: Teachers Knowledge in Lesson Presentations. Open Journal of Educational Research, 2(2), 301-312. https://doi.org/10.31586/ojer.2022.493 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31586/ojer.2022.493
Ediyang, S. D., & Effiom, V. N. (2015). Social Studies Materials & Resources. Calabar: Maesot & Company
Fakuade, O., Olaniyan, A., & Aremu, A. (2022). Implications of Primary School Teacher's Levels of Awareness About Social Media Based Instructional Platforms for Extended Learning, 7(6), 2454-6194.
Gamage, K.A., Dehideniya, D.M., & Ekanayake S.Y. (2021). The Role of Personal Values in Learning Approaches and Student Achievements. Behavioral Sciences (Basel), 11(7), 102-104. https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11070102 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11070102
Ganira, L., Odundo, P., Gatumu, C., & Muasya, J. (2018). Relevance of Social Studies Curriculum Content for Enhancing Responsibility among Preschool Children in Nairobi County, Kenya. Journal of Education and Training, 5(1), 205-206.
Ghazi A.R., Khan, R. S., Hussain, S., & Faitma, T. (2012). Effectiveness of modular teaching in Biology at secondary level. Asian Social Science, 6(9), 49-54. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v6n9p49 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v6n9p49
KICD. (2017). Curriculum Designs. Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, 101-108.
Matthews, K., Andrews, T., & Adams, P. (2011). Social Learning Spaces and Student Engagement. Higher Education Research and Development, 30 (2), 56-59.
Morris, A.S., Criss, M.M., Silk, J.S., & Houltberg, B.J. (2017). The Impact of Parenting on Emotion Regulation During Childhood and Adolescence. Child Dev Perspect, 11(4), 233-238. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12238
Osman, S., & Gyasi, M. E. (2020). Fostering National Unity and National Consciousness in Ghana through Social Studies Education. Social Education Research, 187-199.
Risinger, C.F. (2012). "What Social Studies Educators Can Do about the Marginalization of the Subject They Teach,"Social Education, 76(6), 299-300.
Ross, E. Wayne. (2020). History and Social Studies Curriculum. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.1062 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.1062
Twining, P., Butler, D., Fisser, P., et al. (2021). Developing a quality curriculum in a technological era. Education Tech Research Dev, 69(2), 2285-2308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09857-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09857-3
Viberg, O., Jivet, I., & Scheffel, M. (2023). Designing culturally aware learning analytics: A value sensitive perspective. In Viberg, O., & Grönlund, Å. (Eds). Practicable Learning Analytics. Springer Nature (In Press).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Zipporah Jerotich Ruto, John O. Shiundu, Aggrey M. Simiyu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.