Exploring the Influence of Domestic Violence Exposure on Pupils' Behavior in Kenyan Public Primary Schools


  • Peris Waithira Njoroge PhD Candidate (Educational Psychology), Maasai Mara University, Kenya
  • Mwaura Kimani School of Education, Maasai Mara University, Kenya
  • Hilda Nyougo Omae School of Education, Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya




Domestic Violence, Academic Performance, Pupils, Primary Schools, Informal Settlements


Families are perceived as protective, nurturing and provide a safe environment for growth and wellbeing of their members, especially children. However, children of all ages are exposed to domestic violence between parents. Living in an environment that has conflict can be challenging especially for children who are exposed. Children can be exposed as witnesses, victims or both witness and victim. The current study seeks to explore the influence of the type of exposure to domestic violence on pupils' behaviour in public primary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. A descriptive survey was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select public primary schools that drew pupils from informal settlements and pupils from a two-parent family. During the data collection phase, formulae by Krejcie & Morgan (1970) were used to sample 380 pupils. An adapted Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised (CEDV) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were self-administered to measure exposure to domestic violence and internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Reliability of the questionnaires was tested by computing Cronbach alpha coefficient. CEDV had an alpha coefficient of α= 0.785 while SQD had an alpha coefficient of α= 0.77 which was considered reliable. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse qualitative data collected. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) aided data analysis. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r) was used to test hypothesis. The hypothesis failed to show a significant relationship on influence of type of exposure to domestic violence on pupils’ behaviour n=380, r=0.043, p=.408>0.05. Major recommendations of the study are provision of sensitization programmes for parents to reduce child exposure to domestic violence. Further research includes conducting research to explore resilient factors in pupils from informal settlements exposed to domestic violence. Major beneficiaries of this study are pupils, parents, teachers and policy makers in education sector.


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How to Cite

Njoroge, P. W., Kimani, M., & Omae, H. N. (2023). Exploring the Influence of Domestic Violence Exposure on Pupils’ Behavior in Kenyan Public Primary Schools. African Journal of Empirical Research, 4(2), 754–762. https://doi.org/10.51867/ajernet.4.2.76

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