Exploring the Influence of Domestic Violence Exposure on Pupils' Behavior in Kenyan Public Primary Schools
Keywords:Domestic Violence, Academic Performance, Pupils, Primary Schools, Informal Settlements
Families are perceived as protective, nurturing and provide a safe environment for growth and wellbeing of their members, especially children. However, children of all ages are exposed to domestic violence between parents. Living in an environment that has conflict can be challenging especially for children who are exposed. Children can be exposed as witnesses, victims or both witness and victim. The current study seeks to explore the influence of the type of exposure to domestic violence on pupils' behaviour in public primary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. A descriptive survey was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select public primary schools that drew pupils from informal settlements and pupils from a two-parent family. During the data collection phase, formulae by Krejcie & Morgan (1970) were used to sample 380 pupils. An adapted Violence Exposure Scale for Children-Revised (CEDV) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were self-administered to measure exposure to domestic violence and internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Reliability of the questionnaires was tested by computing Cronbach alpha coefficient. CEDV had an alpha coefficient of α= 0.785 while SQD had an alpha coefficient of α= 0.77 which was considered reliable. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse qualitative data collected. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) aided data analysis. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r) was used to test hypothesis. The hypothesis failed to show a significant relationship on influence of type of exposure to domestic violence on pupils’ behaviour n=380, r=0.043, p=.408>0.05. Major recommendations of the study are provision of sensitization programmes for parents to reduce child exposure to domestic violence. Further research includes conducting research to explore resilient factors in pupils from informal settlements exposed to domestic violence. Major beneficiaries of this study are pupils, parents, teachers and policy makers in education sector.
Al-Eissa, M. A., Al-Buhairan, F. S., Qayad, M., Saleheen, H., Runyan, D., & Almuneef, M. (2020). Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: A pilot study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 104, 104477.
Asagba, R. B., Noibi, O. W., & Ogueji, I. A. (2022). Gender differences in children's exposure to domestic violence in Nigeria. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 15(2), 423-426.
Babicka-Wirkus, A., Kozłowski, P., Wirkus, Ł., & Stasiak, K. (2023). Internalizing and Externalizing Disorder Levels among Adolescents: Data from Poland. International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(3), 2752. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032752. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032752
Bair-Merritt, M. H., Holmes, W. C., Holmes, M. R., Kunins, L., Jouriles, E. N., & Rosen, K. (2006). An exploration of relationships between intimate partner violence exposure in post-resettlement adjustment. Journal of Family Violence, 21(5), 263-273.
Bourassa, C. (2007). Child maltreatment and academic achievement: A pilot study on the impact of parental mental health. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(9), 961-971.
Bukhari, S.A. (2021). Sample Size Determination Using Krejcie and Morgan Table. 10.13140/RG.2.
Clauss, Jacqueline & Blackford, Jennifer. (2012). Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Developing Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51. 1066-1075.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.002
Devries, K. M., Mak, J. Y., García-Moreno, C., Petzold, M., Child, J. C., Falder, G., ... & Watts, C. H. (2017). The global prevalence of intimate partner violence against women. Science, 340(6140), 1527-1528. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1240937 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1240937
Dixon, M., & Bruening, J. (2007). Work-family conflict in coaching I: A top-down perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 21, 377-406. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.21.3.377 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.21.3.377
Drinkard, A., Pamela B., & Tontodonato C., (2018). The Value-Added Nature of Service-Learning, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 32(8), 101-105. DOI: 10.1080/10511253.2018.1446544
Edleson, J. L. (1999). Children's witnessing of adult domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14(8), 839-870.
Graham-Bermann, S. A., & Perkins, S. C. (2010). Effects of early exposure and lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on child adjustment. Violence and Victims, 25(4), 427-439.
Grasso, D. J., Dierkhising, C. B., Branson, C. E., Ford, J. D., & Lee, R. (2016). Developmental patterns of adverse childhood experiences and current symptoms and impairment in youth referred for trauma-specific services. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(5), 871-886. doi:10.1007/s10802-015-0086-8
Greene, C. A., Haisley, L., Wallace, C., & Ford, J. D. (2020). Intergenerational effects of childhood maltreatment: A systematic review of the parenting practices of adult survivors of childhood abuse, neglect, and violence. Clinical psychology Review, 80, 101891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101891 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101891
Hamby, S., Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., & Ormrod, R. (2010). The overlap of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other victimizations in a nationally representative survey of youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34(11), 734-741.
Hietamäki, J., Holma, J., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2021). Child exposure to intimate partner violence and age: A developmental trauma perspective. Child Abuse & Neglect, 119, 105284.
Holden G. W. (2003). Children exposed to domestic violence and child abuse: terminology and taxonomy. Clinical child and family psychology review, 6(3), 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1024906315255 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024906315255
Holmes, M. R. (2013). The long-term effects of exposure to domestic violence on adolescent psychological adjustment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(2), 359-378.
Idemudia, E. S., & Makhubela, S. (2011). Gender difference, exposure to domestic violence and adolescents' identity development. Gender and Behaviour, 9(1), 3443-3465.
Kewalramani, Soni & Singh, Garima. (2017). Relationship between Aggression and Interpersonal Communication. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4, 2349-3429.
Khemthong, O. ., & Chutiphongdech, T. (2021). Domestic Violence and Its Impacts on Children: A Concise Review of Past Literature. Asia Social Issues, 14(6),1-12 pages. Retrieved from https://so06.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/asi/article/view/249759.
Lacinová, L., & Beňuš, Š. (2013). Gender differences in coping strategies and their influence on the quality of family and school life. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 811-816.
Lloyd, S. A. (2018). The dark side of the family: An exploration of domestic violence as a social phenomenon. ABC-CLIO.
Mas'udah, S. (2022) Familial relationships and efforts in retention of marriage among atomistic families in Indonesia. Cogent Social Sciences, 8. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2022.2046313 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2022.2046313
Maurya, C., & Maurya, P. (2023). Adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviours among adolescents and young adults: evidence from India. BMC Public Health, 23, 536. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15416-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15416-1
Meltzer, H., Doos, L., Vostanis, P., Ford, T., & Goodman, R. (2009). The mental health of children who witness domestic violence. Child and Family Social Work, 14(4), 491 - 501.
Moylan, C. A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Sousa, C., Tajima, E. A., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2010). The effects of child abuse and exposure to domestic violence on adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Violence, 25(1), 53-63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-009-9269-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-009-9269-9
Mullender, A., Hague, G., Imam, U., Kelly, L., Malos, E., & Regan, L. (2002). Children's perspectives on domestic violence. Sage Publications. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446220795 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446220795
Murrell, A. R., Christoff, K. A., & Henning, K. (2007). Characteristics of domestic violence offenders: Associations with childhood exposure to violence. Journal of Family Violence, 22(7), 523-532. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9100-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-007-9100-4
Orodho, J. A. (2008). Techniques of Writing Research Proposals and Reports in Educational and Social Sciences. Kanezja HP Enterprises. Maseno, Kenya.
Pinchevsky, G. M., Wright, E. M., Fagan, A. A., & Frank, J. L. (2013). Gender differences in the effects of exposure to intimate partner violence on adolescent substance use. Violence and Victims, 28(6), 966-981. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.28.1.122 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.28.1.122
Pingley, T. (2017). The Impact of Witnessing Domestic Violence on Children: A Systematic Review. Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers. https://sophia.stkate.edu/msw_papers/776
Poole, C. L., & Sterne, J. A. (2010). Children's perspectives on domestic violence. Child Abuse Review, 19(3), 196-215.
Smith, C. A., Ireland, T. O., Thornberry, T. P., & Elwyn, L. (2010). Childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior: Comparison of self-reported and substantiated maltreatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80(4), 567-575.
Tsavoussis, A., Stawicki, S. P., Stoicea, N., & Papadimos, T. J. (2014). Child-witnessed domestic violence and its adverse effects on brain development: a call for societal self-examination and awareness. Frontiers in Public Health, 2, 178. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00178.
van Berkel, S. R., Tucker, C. J., & Finkelhor, D. (2018). The Combination of Sibling Victimization and Parental Child Maltreatment on Mental Health Problems and Delinquency. Child Maltreatment, 23(3), 244-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559517751670 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559517751670
Voisin, D. R., & Hong, J. S. (2012). The association between witnessing violence and attitudes towards partner violence in male and female high school students. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 29(1), 47-64.
Vu, N. L., Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., & Rosenfield, D. (2016). Children's exposure to intimate partner violence: A meta-analysis of longitudinal associations with child adjustment problems. Clinical Psychology Review, 46, 25-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.003
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Peris Waithira Njoroge, Mwaura Kimani, Hilda Nyougo Omae
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.