Human Resource Factors Influencing Gender Disparity in Development of Early Childhood Education Teaching Profession in Kakamega East Sub-County, Kenya


  • Roseline Kadogo Department of Educational Psychology, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya
  • Edward Okaya Department of Educational Psychology, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya
  • Manson Sichari Department of Educational Psychology, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kakamega, Kenya



Early Childhood Education, Gender Disparity, Human Resource, Teaching Profession


Education determines how well people can relate to and communicate with one another. Despite this view, the gaps in education opportunities in most developing countries are large. Public schools in Kakamega East Sub-County haven’t escaped the waves of gender disparities that have affected both private and public schools in Kenya. This study, therefore, sought to establish the influence of human resource factors on gender disparity among ECDE teachers. The study was supported by social role theory. A descriptive survey study design was used, which is primarily concerned with the generic statistics that derive from the extraction of data from respondents. The area of study was Kakamega East sub-county, situated in Kakamega County, Kenya. The target population was 1,106, including head teachers, deputy head teachers, teachers, program officers, and quality assurance officers (QUASO). Data was collected from a sample of 260, comprising 37 head teachers, 37 deputy head teachers, and 184 teachers, using questionnaires and interviews. A pilot study was conducted to appropriately validate the research instruments in advance before the real research commenced. Cronbach’s alpha (α) as a coefficient method to establish the reliability of the research instruments revealed a coefficient of 0.783, which shows that the instrument was reliable. Data was collected from the teachers in line with the three study objectives using questionnaires and interview schedules. Data obtained from the research instruments were analyzed inferentially and descriptively with the help of a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Quantitative data was summarized to quantify the strength of the association between the variables, and the researcher conducted a regression analysis to establish the effect of selected factors on gender disparity. Results were presented in tables. The findings revealed that human resource factors have a positive influence on gender disparity (t = 14.572, p<0.05) and explain 45.9% of the variance. It was concluded that human resource factors had a significant influence on gender disparity in the early childhood education profession. It was therefore recommended that human resource factors be considered in the recruitment of early ECD teachers. It is hoped that this study may help policymakers consider encouraging males to enroll in ECDE teaching.


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How to Cite

Kadogo, R., Okaya, E., & Sichari, M. (2023). Human Resource Factors Influencing Gender Disparity in Development of Early Childhood Education Teaching Profession in Kakamega East Sub-County, Kenya. African Journal of Empirical Research, 4(2), 419–428.