Resource Availability and its Role in Promoting Participation in Non-Formal Curricular Activities in Kenyan Secondary Schools




Curriculum Implementation, Curriculum Resources, Non-Formal Curriculum, Non-Formal Curricular Activities, Secondary Schools


This study examined the resources that promoted participation in Non-Formal Curricular Activities (NFCAs) in secondary schools in Kakamega County, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used. The study utilized 2507 participants who included 1935 learners, 430 teachers, 43 Heads of Department of NFCAs, 43 Principals, 43 parents and 13 SQASOs.  To generate quantitative data, questionnaires were used and for qualitative data, structured interviews, document analysis and observations were utilized. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and presented using frequencies, the mean, mode, percentages and standard deviations and qualitative data was presented in narrative form. The study found out that funding for NFCAs is inadequate at the school level and is delayed. Though resources for implementation of non-formal curriculum activities were available in most secondary schools, they were inadequate and could not match the large learner populations. The study recommended the government should also step-up provision of funds to enable acquisition of resources, infrastructure and supplies that will enhance learner participation in NFCAs.


Acosta, I. C., & Acosta, A. S. (2017). A Mixed Methods Study on Teachers' Perceptions of Readiness of Higher Education Institutions to the Implementation of the K-12 Curriculum. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5, 1215-1232. DOI:

Aiman Faiz, Muhammad Parhan, and Rizki Ananda. (2022). New Paradigm in Prototype Curriculum. Science Journal Education, 4(1), 1544-1550. DOI:

Arsalan, A., Muhammad, J., & Yaar, M. (2020). Co-Curricular Activities: A case study on perspectives of winning secondary school students. Kashmir Journal of Education, 1(2), 77-104.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., & Sorensen, C.K. Introduction to Research in Education. Wadsworth, CA: Cengage Learning.

Atinga, N. (2018). Management practices of Headteachers and the implications on Co-curricular activities Lugari sub-county, Kenya. (Unpublished MED, Kenyatta University, Nairobi).

Eshiwani, S. E. (1993). Education in Kenya since independence. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Education Book Publishers.

GOK. (1964). The Education Commission Report (Ominde Report). Nairobi: Government Printers.

Good, V. C. (1966). Essentials of Educational Research. New York: Meredith Publishing Company.

Goodlad, J. (2000). Goodlad, J.I. (2000). Educational renewal and the arts. Arts Education Policy Review, 101(4), 11-14. DOI:

GOK (1972). Curriculum Development in Kenya. Exploring Changes in Public Education since Independence, 4(2), 99-112.

Government of Kenya (1976). National Commission on Education Objectives and Policies. Nairobi: Government Printers.

Jamal, A. A. M., & Muhammad, Y. (2020). Co-curricular Activities: A case study of the winning secondary school students in Kashmir. Journal of Education, 1, 77-104.

Joshi, V. (2010). Circular on Physical Education and sports in schools (Cir. No. 71). Central board of secondary education. New Delhi: Government of India.

Kalinger, F. N. (1973). Foundations of Behavioural Research. New York, USA: Hill Reinhert and Winston, Inc.

Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD). (2015). School Administration and Management, Quality Assurance and Standards in Schools. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.

Kisango, B. (2016). Factors influencing students' participation in co-curricular activities in public secondary schools in Lamu County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Kithuka, G. (2004). Educational Measurement and Evaluation. Njoro: Egerton University Press.

Lazaro, A., & Anney, V. N. (2016). Rethinking the role of co-curricular activities in developing students' talents in secondary schools in Tanzania. A Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS), 7(2), 152-156.

Makori, A. (2014). Understanding realities, inequalities, and implications associated with policy and practice in form one selection in secondary schools in Kenya. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 17(1), 146-164.

MOE. (2000). Alternate Routes to Basic Primary Education. Addis Ababa: Commercial Printers.

Mohammed, H., & Osaki, D. (2020) Student Thesis on Supervision of extra-curricular activities and the development of soft skills among students in selected schools in Lushoto District, Tanzania. World Journal of Education and Humanities, 4(4), 98-116. DOI:

Odhiambo, D., Ngota, J. O., & Okoti, D. (2020). From co-curricular to core curricular: implications of sports as an academic and career pathway in the new Kenyan curriculum reform. The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research, 8(2), 90-101.

Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2009). Curriculum Foundations Principles and Issues (5th Ed.) New York: Allyn & Bacon, Pearson & Education Inc.

Oseno, B. (2012). The Conceptual Framework. Conceptualization in Research Proposal Project and Thesis. Nairobi: Apic Publishers.

Shiundu, J. S., & Omulando, S. J. (1992). Curriculum Theory and Practice in Kenya. Nairobi: Oxford University Press.

Sifuna, D. N., & Otiende, J. (1994). An Introductory History of Education. Nairobi: University Press.

Tyler, R. W. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Ltd.




How to Cite

Oloo, A. A., Abenga, E., & Wangila, E. (2023). Resource Availability and its Role in Promoting Participation in Non-Formal Curricular Activities in Kenyan Secondary Schools. African Journal of Empirical Research, 4(2), 355–362.