Nature of Reintegration Programmes for Returnee Terrorist Fighters in Mombasa County, Kenya




Foreign Terrorist Fighters, Non-custodial Reintegration, Reintegration Programmes, Returnee Terrorist Fighters


Terrorism is a global threat to peace, security, and prosperity. It also puts conflict resolution strategies to the test. The rise of global terrorism has led to the emergence of numerous extremist groups, which have attracted individuals from various regions, including Mombasa, Kenya. As these individuals return from engaging in terrorist activities, effective reintegration programs play a crucial role in countering further radicalization and promoting societal stability. The study sought to explore the nature of non-custodial reintegration programmes on returnee terrorist fighters in Mombasa. Because of the increasing acceptance and adoption of non-custodial reintegration strategies for returnee terrorist fighters in several countries, there is a growing recognition of the importance of both governmental and non-governmental actors contributing to the development and implementation of the programs. Kenya is no stranger to returning terrorist fighters and the threat they pose to peace and security. The research methodology used for this study combined qualitative and quantitative methods. A sample size of 400 respondents was needed for investigation from the target population of Mombasa County. The County was shown to have the highest rates of violent extremism and recidivism in Kenya. Primary data was collected using questionnaires. Interviews and focus groups discussion with key informants, gave participants insight into the viewpoints and experiences of various participants in the reintegration process. A desk examination of the literature was used to gather secondary data for the investigation. The study findings revealed that Kenya is combining classic counter-terrorist measures such as arrests, detentions, and movement restrictions with policies and programs for prevention, intervention, and reintegration. Factors such as psychological trauma, socioeconomic reintegration, and community acceptance are identified as critical elements that influence the effectiveness of these programs. Religious leaders, community organizations, and government agencies facilitate successful reintegration processes. The study recommends non-custodial reintegration for returnee terrorist fighters to be the best strategy that would provide a perfect opportunity for enhancing community resilience in fighting radicalization leading to terrorism in Kenya.


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How to Cite

Ngachra, M. O., & Onkware, K. (2023). Nature of Reintegration Programmes for Returnee Terrorist Fighters in Mombasa County, Kenya. African Journal of Empirical Research, 4(2), 202–214.