https://ajernet.net/issue/feed African Journal of Empirical Research 2021-06-12T16:21:18+00:00 David N. editor.ajernet@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p>The African Journal of Empirical Research (AJER) is a publisher of peer-reviewed journals and other empirically driven works. The aim of the journal is to provide researchers, students, and professors with up-to-date multidisciplinary literature. This is for purposes of enhancing easy exchange of ideas, review of research and expertise among academics. We accept papers that are based on empirical research, meta-analysis and systematic review of extant literature. Upon receipt, these papers are meticulously reviewed by highly qualified and experienced scholars and published at an affordable cost.</p> <p>Established in East Africa, the journal aims at facilitating the distribution and publication of research that reflects the ever-changing requirements of academics from a multiplicity of disciplines. All content is published on an open-access basis. This means that there is unrestricted access, distribution and reproduction of all published work as long as it is correctly cited.</p> <p>All published content is distributed to thousands of libraries the world over. Authors are accorded timely support and guidance throughout the publishing process. If any work is not responsive to our publication standards, the author(s) is given enough time and guidance to revise it. Certificates are issued for all works published. We look forward to working with you. Get published today.</p> https://ajernet.net/article/view/20 Teacher Retention in Secondary Schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya Union Conference 2021-04-10T17:48:25+00:00 Shadrack Kamundi kamushed@yahoo.com <p><em>The study aimed at examining retention of teachers in secondary schools of the Seventh-Day Adventist</em> <em>(SDA) Church in East Kenya Union Conference (EKUC). It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. Out of the twenty secondary schools in the Union, the researcher targeted eleven which sat for the national exams since 2008. The subjects of the study included teachers, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the BoM chairpersons. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires for teachers. Interview schedules were organized for education directors, the school BoM chairpersons, the principals and teachers for triangulation. Observation schedule was also organized. This targeted the school infrastructure and generally all what goes on in the school. The school learning facilities and the behavior of teachers in school was also captured here. The other instrument used was the tool for document analysis to collect data for 8 years. Ninety-eight (98) teachers were required to fill the provided questionnaire, but the eleven principals, five education directions and eleven Boards of Management (BoM ) chairpersons were subjected to interviews. Three teachers per school were also interviewed for triangulation purpose. Observations were also done during the visits in schools. Documentary analysis method was also used to gather information on the turnover trends of teachers for eight years. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations.&nbsp; Documentary analysis was done on records about teacher retention. Content analysis was done on responses from interviews and in open-ended questions to identify the emerging themes. The findings show that more teachers were leaving schools than those being employed in most of the years. Generally, it is evident that some teachers left church employment. The turnover was experienced annually. However, teachers intended to remain in the school as long as the administration was cooperative, understanding, appreciative, recognizes their efforts, was caring and was ready to treat them with dignity. The study recommends that the school administration should be cooperative to teachers, by treating them with dignity and appreciating their efforts. There should be stringent measures for motivating teachers, ensuring that they had access to housing and transport and that they were adequately remunerated.</em></p> 2021-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/23 Multi Agency Response to International Terrorism in Kenya: A Comparison of Dusit D2 and Westgate Terror Attacks 2021-04-14T07:48:12+00:00 Musoma Albert Lusiola albertmike84@gmail.com <p><em>This study sets out to assess responses to international terrorism in Kenya. This stems out of the fact that the terrorism menace has had been a major security challenge facing the country. The study draws a comparison of the Dusit D2 and Westgate terror attacks. Data was collected from a purposive sample of academics as well as serving and retired diplomats, senior police officers and military personnel. Primary data was collected from the respondents using interviews. The findings show that the West gate shopping mall in 2013 and the DusitD2 Hotel attack in January 2019 are replete with major differences. A critical comparison between both attacks shows an immense difference in the response to the terrorist attacks in Westgate Mall and Dust D2. In both cases, there was prior intelligence of the looming attack. However, there was no clear policy framework on intelligence sharing between the various security agencies in Westgate. Additionally, policies on timely multiagency deployment were disjointed in Westgate but improved in Dusit D2. Although the friendly fire was recorded in Westgate, this was not the case in Westgate. There was also a lack of clear policies on hierarchical coordination between different security agencies in Westgate Mall as opposed to Dusit D2. The law had also been more enhanced with the domestication of the 2012 Prevention of Terrorism Act and the creation of the institutions enshrined therein during the Dusit D2 attack. Accountability mechanisms for security agencies had also been improved during the Dusit D2 attack as opposed to Westgate Mall attack where there were cases of indiscipline and looting by state security personnel. Coordination between government officials and security agencies was also smoother in the Dusit D2 attack. Although the terrorists could communicate for some time between themselves and their command center and share publicity information, this was not the case with Dusit D2 where such communication was curtailed immediately. In both attacks though, communication between victims and outside help was poor and unreliable, and false information was passed. This was more prone and documented in the Dusit D2 attack. It is recommended that multiagency response teams should constantly review their operation guidelines and standard operating procedures so as to deal with the ever-changing sophistication in terrorist attacks. The government should put in place ways aimed at checking disparities in capabilities and equipment among various tactical and intelligence teams in Kenya for a uniform response to terrorism. There is a need for multinational frameworks for undertaking financing and creation of joint information infrastructure for security agencies so as to reign in on international terrorism in the East African Region. Training should also be synchronized across security agencies.</em></p> 2021-04-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/36 Effects of collaborative management of shared natural resources on inter-state relations in the Horn of Africa 2021-05-06T13:36:30+00:00 Edward Leonard Waithaka admin@ajernet.net Kellen Wanjiku Waweru kellysheila2016@gmail.com David Nzioka Mutisya info@kenyadataexperts.com <p>The management of shared natural resources by Horn of Africa states exerts both positive and negative effects on inter-state relations in the region. On one hand, inability to collaboratively manage these resources for the common good of all states involved risks a trigger to interstate conflict in the region. Conversely, effective and collaborative management of these shared natural resources can provide good avenues for these states to cement their relations for the common good of all parties involved. In line with each state’s national interests, huge amounts of capital are spent to develop and protect the resources in the Horn of Africa region. However due to lack of clearly defined policies and inadequate management strategies these resources have been mismanaged and as a result led to conflict, food shortages and environmental problems. The search for aid constantly puts the states in a dilemma, over how to benefit from the resources, creating mistrust among the nations. As a result, numerous effects of these shared resources get to emerge, affecting the interstate relations what could be identified to be the ‘tragedy of the commons.</p> 2021-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/21 Determinants of Teacher and Student Retention in Secondary Schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya union Conference 2021-04-11T10:51:00+00:00 Shadrack Kamundi kamushed@yahoo.com <p><em>The study aimed at establishing the factors which influence low retention of teachers and students in secondary schools of the SDA Church in EKUC. It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. This was to investigate the factors which influenced the retention of teachers and students in EKUC schools. Out of the twenty secondary schools in the Union, the researcher targeted eleven which sat for the national exams since 2008. The subjects of the study included teachers, students, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the BoM chairpersons. The study was based on expectancy theory of motivation which states that certain behavior leads to expected outcome. In the research, certain behaviors by the relevant authorities should lead to high retention of students and teachers. Teachers should be availed bursary funds for career advancement, given incentives for motivation and be made to believe that they are appreciated by the school administration. The administration should assist the needy students to get financial support. The findings showed that two independent variables (school administration and motivation strategies) commonly contributed to retention of teachers and students. School administration was the most common factor which contributed to low retention, among the two groups. It was found important to carry out exhaustive studies on each of the study variables for comparative purposes in public schools and undertake exploratory and in-depth studies on the same. </em></p> 2021-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/31 Mobile Loans as Financing Options in Kenya and the Financial Performance of SMEs in Low Income Areas in Nairobi County 2021-04-29T18:39:56+00:00 Margaret Murage maggiemurage@gmail.com <p><em>This study sets out to examine the effect of loan accessibility on the financial performance of SMEs in urban informal settlements in Kenya. Based on the descriptive survey design, data were collected from 120 SMEs in the 6 wards of Mathare Sub-County using semi-structured questionnaires. It was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings show that all the loan accessibility had a significant and positive relationship with the financial performance of SMEs. In this regard, enhancing loan accessibility contributed to the financial performance of SMEs in urban areas. Financial inclusion among SMEs in urban areas was also enhanced through mobile loans. This could go on to enhance living standards among the inhabitants of urban informal settlements as envisaged by world bank. In this regard, several recommendations were made. Mobile loan providers should market their mobile loan products to make them visible since only 4, Safaricom-Fuliza, M-Shwari, Tala, and KCB-Mpesa were the most used. Civil society organizations in collaboration with mobile loan providers should also carry out capacity building campaigns among SMEs in informal settlements. This would lead to enhanced visibility and accessibility of these mobile loans among the inhabitants of urban informal settlements.</em></p> 2021-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/38 An Assessment of Church Leader’s Perceptions on Gay Relationships, and its Acceptability by the Church 2021-05-27T09:24:43+00:00 Annie Gitau anniegitau2015@gmail.com <p><em>The aim of this study was to determine how church leaders felt about gay relationships and whether they were acceptable in the church. The study used Bandura’s Social Learning Theory to demonstrate that a person's behavior is a function of the factors that surround them. The research focused on the All Saints Cathedral Anglican Church in Nairobi, and it used a cross-sectional study design. Questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups were used to gather information. Cross tabulations and simple statistical analyses were carried out using descriptive summary statistics.</em><em> The results reveal that there is a clear link between modeled behavior and behavior acceptance. The view of church leaders affected the recognition of gay relationships in the church. Younger churchgoers, on the other hand, were more likely to change their actions in response to what their age-mates who were also churchgoers did. Furthermore, the results of the focus group discussion reveal that most parents would rather support their children if they came out as gay and continued to attend church than denounce them. Finally, while African culture is hostile to gay relationships in general, the presence of gay church leaders in the community /or complicit church leaders is likely to affect the church community's view of gay relationships and, as a result, their inclusion in society.</em></p> 2021-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/19 Student Retention in secondary schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya Union Conference 2021-04-10T14:22:12+00:00 Shadrack Kamundi kamushed@yahoo.com <p><em>The study assessed students’ retention in secondary schools of the SDA Church in EKUC. It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. The subjects of the study included students, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the Board of Management (BoM) chairpersons. Based on expectancy theory of motivation, the study adopted the concurrent mixed methods research design. The target population was the twenty Seventh-day Adventist Church maintained Secondary Schools in EKUC. The unit of analysis was eleven secondary school principals, five education directors and, eleven chairpersons of the school boards of management (BOM) and 335 students. Cluster sampling technique was used to get the samples. The target population was divided into five clusters (principals, students, education directors and, board chairpersons). Samples were obtained from each of these clusters. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires for students. Interview schedules were organized for education directors, the school BoM chairpersons and the principals for triangulation. Observation schedule was also organized. This targeted the school infrastructure and generally all what goes on in the school. The school learning facilities and the behavior of teachers in school was also captured here. The other instrument used was the tool for document analysis to collect data for 8 years. Students (335) were required to fill the provided questionnaire, but the eleven principals, five education directions and eleven BoM chairpersons were subjected to interviews. Documentary analysis method was used to get information on KCSE performance for the same period of eight years. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations.&nbsp; Documentary analysis was done on records about teacher retention.&nbsp; Content analysis was done on responses from interviews and in open-ended questions. The findings show that there were high numbers of students in Form 2 and 3 who dropped within the year and those who joined. Students were being replaced as they dropped out in some of the years. All in all, there were high annual turnover rates.&nbsp; This could affect the learning processes as well as students’ academic performance. The study recommends the need for schools to put in place strategies for ensuring that students learning facilities were available.&nbsp; Students should also be motivated to remain in school. Bursaries and sponsorships for students from poor backgrounds should be availed. Spiritual guidance, work programs and flexible fees payment mechanisms should also be instituted so as to support children from poor background to remain in school.</em></p> 2021-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/22 Key Challenges Facing AMISOM in Military Diplomacy in the Horn of Africa 2021-04-14T07:27:37+00:00 Musoma Albert Lusiola albertmike84@gmail.com <p><em>The world over, military diplomacy has not been always successful. This stems out of the fact that it could be faced by a plethora of challenges. This paper sets out to explore the key challenges facing AMISOM in military diplomacy in the Horn of Africa.&nbsp; The study adopted an exploratory and mixed methods research design. Data was obtained from a sample of 100 persons sampled from a population of 22,315 AMISOM Staff and Civilian contingent. The study employed a breadth of both primary and secondary sources for data collection. Primary data was being collected from study respondents by means of a research questionnaire and an interview schedule. The data analysis process involved both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Content analysis was mainly used to analyze the qualitative data and which would be reported normatively. Quantitative research findings were analyzed and reported using descriptive statistics, tables, graphs, charts and inferential statistics in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v23). Moreover, the data analysis was structured objectively to address each of the study research questions.&nbsp; The findings show that while competing interests may have clouded the scene at regional level, partly alluded to lack of a common approach to deal with the Somalia issue among the various countries, military diplomatic engagements by AMISOM are the most agreeable way to address regional peace and security. The study highlights the greater need for revised strategies in military diplomacy efforts and novel approaches to address competing interests among troop contributing countries that comprise AMISOM. Based on the study findings, the following recommendations were made. Arguably, the most important dimension of its success is hinged on the strategic unity and partnership of the different troops. At present however, the inconsistency in unity and strategic alliance among these countries continue to challenge the seamless command and probably influence the implementation of different military diplomacy strategies based on competing interests. Further, while assets remain a critical component of military diplomacy, the success of such multidimensional peace operations is equally anchored on a civilian component and the need for civilian capabilities. The realization of effective peacemaking and peacekeeping calls for efficient management structures at the field and in Addis for strategic and support of mission teams. AMISOM currently experiences an insufficient institutional capacity and human resources required to effectively handle complex peace operations and peacemaking initiatives. Recent assessment reveals the institution bureaucratic processes are still weak.</em></p> 2021-04-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/33 Mobile Loan Frequency of Repayment as a Predictor of the Financial Performance of SMEs in Urban Informal Settlements in Kenya 2021-05-04T15:24:26+00:00 Margaret Murage maggiemurage@gmail.com <p><em>This study explored the effect of repayment timelines on the financial performance of SMEs in urban informal settlements in Kenya. This study adopts the descriptive survey design. Data were collected from 120 SMEs in the 6 wards of Mathare Sub-County. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. It was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. From the study findings, it is evident that repayment timelines influenced the application for mobile loans. The ability to pay mobile loans without problems due to flexible repayment times also enhanced the performance of the respondents’ businesses. While loans with short repayment periods discouraged the businesses from borrowing due to immense pressure, long repayment periods were preferable since it meant that the stock purchased could be converted to cash. Budgeting could also be made easy due to the certainty of cash flow in long and flexible repayment periods. Lastly, a long repayment period meant that the intended use of the money borrowed could be realized. The study made the following recommendation based on the study objective. In this regard, most of the various mobile loan providers should put in place flexible repayment plans to make their loans appealing. They should also market their mobile loan products to make them visible since only 4, Safaricom-Fuliza, M-Shwari, Tala, and KCB-Mpesa were the most used. Civil society organizations in collaboration with mobile loan providers should also carry out capacity building campaigns among SMEs in informal settlements.</em></p> 2021-05-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research https://ajernet.net/article/view/40 Relationship Between On-Job Training and Employee Turnover in the Telecommunications Industry in Kenya 2021-06-12T16:21:18+00:00 Sabina Mueni Musango musangosabina@gmail.com <p><em>The study set to determine the relationship between on-job training and employee turnover in the telecommunications sector in Kenya. Its objectives were: to investigate the kind of extant on-job training in Safaricom Ltd; to determine the effect of employee turnover after undergoing on-job training in Safaricom Ltd; to establish the factors motivating employees turnover after training in Safaricom Ltd and; to establish the relationship between on-job training and employees turnover in Safaricom Ltd. The null hypothesis adopted in this study was: t</em><em>here is no significant relationship between on job-training and employee turnover in Safaricom Ltd. </em><em>This study used a case study research strategy. It targeted 67 employees of Safaricom Ltd. drawn from two job groups 4 and 5 through stratified proportionate sampling. A questionnaire shall be the only research tool used in this study. The findings obtained shall be presented in Tables and Figures. This study found that there on-job training, as is practiced in Safaricom Ltd. is important. As such, organizations need to invest in it. But as they do so, they should realization that it often leads to turnover.&nbsp; Turnover is caused by various factors. The most important factors include: need for high pay after training, competition for other organizations that might want the skills acquired by such employees after training, need for promotion and better working conditions, breach of psychological contract after training among others. When turnover occurs, organizations are affected in various ways. One of the major ways in which organizations are affected is loss of revenue, delay in realization of organizational goals, loss of competiveness as well as loss of requisite skills.&nbsp; Lastly, the study established clearly that there is clear nexus between on-job training and employee turnover.&nbsp; Based on this, the following recommendations are made. The study recommends that managers should have a clear understanding of the influence of on-job training on employee turnover before embarking on such training. This is essential since it could enable employees to put in place ways of curbing the associated turnover. To this end, various measures can be put in place to check turnover put in place budgets to cater for increased pay; have measures for discouraging turnover, and; revise employment contracts to curb turnover among others. Training should also be well planned such that in the eventuality of turnover, companies can make up for such loss by getting suitable replacements. Furthermore, organizations can also avert the loss associated with training-related turnover by employing persons who already possess the requisite skills.</em></p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 African Journal of Empirical Research