Relationship Between On-Job Training and Employee Turnover in the Telecommunications Industry in Kenya


Sabina Mueni Musango


On-Job Training, Employee Turnover, Factors Motivating Turnover, Safaricom Ltd., Kenya


The study set to determine the relationship between on-job training and employee turnover in the telecommunications sector in Kenya. Its objectives were: to investigate the kind of extant on-job training in Safaricom Ltd; to determine the effect of employee turnover after undergoing on-job training in Safaricom Ltd; to establish the factors motivating employees turnover after training in Safaricom Ltd and; to establish the relationship between on-job training and employees turnover in Safaricom Ltd. The null hypothesis adopted in this study was: there is no significant relationship between on job-training and employee turnover in Safaricom Ltd. This study used a case study research strategy. It targeted 67 employees of Safaricom Ltd. drawn from two job groups 4 and 5 through stratified proportionate sampling. A questionnaire shall be the only research tool used in this study. The findings obtained shall be presented in Tables and Figures. This study found that there on-job training, as is practiced in Safaricom Ltd. is important. As such, organizations need to invest in it. But as they do so, they should realization that it often leads to turnover.  Turnover is caused by various factors. The most important factors include: need for high pay after training, competition for other organizations that might want the skills acquired by such employees after training, need for promotion and better working conditions, breach of psychological contract after training among others. When turnover occurs, organizations are affected in various ways. One of the major ways in which organizations are affected is loss of revenue, delay in realization of organizational goals, loss of competiveness as well as loss of requisite skills.  Lastly, the study established clearly that there is clear nexus between on-job training and employee turnover.  Based on this, the following recommendations are made. The study recommends that managers should have a clear understanding of the influence of on-job training on employee turnover before embarking on such training. This is essential since it could enable employees to put in place ways of curbing the associated turnover. To this end, various measures can be put in place to check turnover put in place budgets to cater for increased pay; have measures for discouraging turnover, and; revise employment contracts to curb turnover among others. Training should also be well planned such that in the eventuality of turnover, companies can make up for such loss by getting suitable replacements. Furthermore, organizations can also avert the loss associated with training-related turnover by employing persons who already possess the requisite skills.

Abstract 365 | PDF Downloads 90


American Society for Training and Development (2007). ATSD State of the Industry Report, Executive Summary. Accessed on August 10, 2014 from:

Anyika, L.K. (2012). Perceived relationship between psychological contract and employee turnover at Barclays bank of Kenya. Unpublished Master's thesis submitted to the University of Nairobi. Accessed on August 13, 2014 from

Arthur, J. B. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. The Academy of Manufacturing Performance, 37(3), 670-687.

Becker, G. S. (1993). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Brum, S. (2007).What impact does training have on employee commitment andemployee turnover?University of Rhode Island.

Bula, H. O. (2012). Labor Turnover in the Sugar Industry in Kenya. European Journal of Business and Management, 4 (9), 106-123.

Buyukyilmaz, O. & Cakmak, A.F. (2013). "Direct and indirect effects of psychological contract breach on academicians' turnover intention in turkey". Journal of Economics & Finance (2013), Vol.2 (4).

Capelli, P. (2000). A market driven approach to retaining talent. Harvard Business Review 78(1):103-111.

Colarelli, S. M. & Montei, M. S. (1996). Some contextual influences on training utilization. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32(3), 306-322.

Dabos, G & Rousseau, D (2004). Mutuality and reciprocity in the psychological contracts of employees and employers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89 (1), 52-72.

Flaherty, C. (2007). The Effect of EmployerProvided General Training on Turnover: Examination of Tuition Reimbursement Programs. Discussion Paper No. 0625, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. Stanford UniversityStanford, CA 94305(650) 7251874.

Frazis, H., Gittleman, M., Horrigan, M., & Joyce, M. (1998). Results from the 1995 Survey of Employer Provided Training. Monthly Labor Review, 121 (6), 3-13.

Impact (2012). The High Cost of Employee Turnover and Best Practices for Improving Retention". An Impact White Paper. Available on August 12, 2014 from

Kasomo, D. (2006). Research methods in Humanities and Education. (Statistic, Measurement Evaluation and Testing) Egerton, Kenya: Egerton University Press.

Kaufman, B., & Hotchkiss, J. (2006).Economics of Labor Markets (7th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.

Kinnear, L. & Sutherland, M. (2000). Determinants of organisational commitment amongst knowledge workers. South African Journal of Business Management, 31 (3), 106- 112.

Lazear, E.P. (2005). Firm-Specific Human Capital: A Skill-weights Approach. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers: 9679.

Lynch, L. M. (1991). The role of off-the-job vs. on-the-job training for the mobility of women workers. American Economic Review, 81(2), 151-156.

Orodho, J. A. (2005). Techniques of writing research proposals and reports in education and social sciences, 2nded.Nairobi: Kenezja Hp Enterprises.

Orrje, H. (2010). The incidence of on-the-job training: An Empirical Study .using Swedish Data. Swedish Institute for Social Research Stockholm University, S-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Accessed on August 8, 2014 from!/WP00no6.pdf

Rousseau, DM (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: a study of psychological. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11(1), 389-400.

Safaricom. (2012). Safaricom UNCOP Report 2011/2012. Safaricom Limited.

Safaricom 2.0 available on August 14, 2014 from

Schaffner, J. A. (2001). "Turnover and Job Training in Developing and Developed Countries: Evidence from Colombia and the United States". Department of Economics, 264 Bay State Road, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215.

Scholl, R. W. (2003). Differentiating organizational commitment from expectancy as a motivating force. Academy of Management Review, 6(4), 589-599.

Smith, E., Walke, A. & Kemmis R.B. (2011). Understanding the psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships to improve retention. National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program. Research Report. Australia. Accessed on August 12, 2014 from

Smith, E., Walke, A. & Kemmis, R.B. (2011). Understanding the psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships to improve retention. National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program. Research Report. Australia. Accessed on August 12, 2014 from

Trochim, W. (2000).The research methods knowledge base, 2nd edition. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.

Turnley, W.H. & Feldman, D.C. (1999). "The impact of psychological contract violations on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect". Human Relations, vol.52, pp.895-922.

Zweimüller, J. and Winter-Ebmer, R. (2000). Firm-specific Training: Consequences for Job Mobility, IZA Discussion Paper no. 138.