Key Challenges Facing AMISOM, Military Diplomacy, Horn of Africa, Peace and Security
The world over, military diplomacy has not been always successful. This stems out of the fact that it could be faced by a plethora of challenges. This paper sets out to explore the key challenges facing AMISOM in military diplomacy in the Horn of Africa. The study adopted an exploratory and mixed methods research design. Data was obtained from a sample of 100 persons sampled from a population of 22,315 AMISOM Staff and Civilian contingent. The study employed a breadth of both primary and secondary sources for data collection. Primary data was being collected from study respondents by means of a research questionnaire and an interview schedule. The data analysis process involved both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Content analysis was mainly used to analyze the qualitative data and which would be reported normatively. Quantitative research findings were analyzed and reported using descriptive statistics, tables, graphs, charts and inferential statistics in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v23). Moreover, the data analysis was structured objectively to address each of the study research questions. The findings show that while competing interests may have clouded the scene at regional level, partly alluded to lack of a common approach to deal with the Somalia issue among the various countries, military diplomatic engagements by AMISOM are the most agreeable way to address regional peace and security. The study highlights the greater need for revised strategies in military diplomacy efforts and novel approaches to address competing interests among troop contributing countries that comprise AMISOM. Based on the study findings, the following recommendations were made. Arguably, the most important dimension of its success is hinged on the strategic unity and partnership of the different troops. At present however, the inconsistency in unity and strategic alliance among these countries continue to challenge the seamless command and probably influence the implementation of different military diplomacy strategies based on competing interests. Further, while assets remain a critical component of military diplomacy, the success of such multidimensional peace operations is equally anchored on a civilian component and the need for civilian capabilities. The realization of effective peacemaking and peacekeeping calls for efficient management structures at the field and in Addis for strategic and support of mission teams. AMISOM currently experiences an insufficient institutional capacity and human resources required to effectively handle complex peace operations and peacemaking initiatives. Recent assessment reveals the institution bureaucratic processes are still weak.
Andrews, K.N., & Holt, V. K. (2007). United Nations-African Union coordination on peace and security in Africa. Issue Brief, 3.
Anzalone, C. (2016). The Resilience of Al-Shabaab. CTC Sentinel, 9(4), 13.
Bellamy, A. J. (2010). Global politics and the responsibility to protect: from words to deeds. Routledge.
Boutros-Ghali, B. (1992). An agenda for peace: Preventive diplomacy, peace-making and peacekeeping. International Relations, 11(3), 201-218.
Collins, J. M., & Kingston, R. C. (2002). Military strategy: Principles, practices, and historical perspectives. Potomac Books, Inc.
De Coning, C., & Freear, M. (2013). Lessons from the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM) for peace operations in Mali.
Dersso, S. A. (2010). The role and place of the African Standby Force within the African Peace and Security Architecture. Institute for Security Studies Papers, 2010(209), 24.
Dersso, S.A. (2010). Somalia dilemmas: changing security dynamics, but limited policy choices. Institute for Security Studies Papers, 2010(218), 24.
Elmi, A. A. (2014). Decentralization options for Somalia. The Heritage Institute for Policy Studies. The Heritage Institute for Policy Studies.
Ferras, P. (2013). Security stakes and challenges in the Horn of Africa. State and Societal Challenges in the Horn of Africa, 48.
Forde, S. (1995). International realism and the science of politics: Thucydides, Machiavelli, and neorealism. International Studies Quarterly, 39(2), 141-160.
Haftendorn, H. (1991). The security puzzle: theory building and discipline building in international security. International studies quarterly, 35(1), 3-17.
International Crisis Group. (2008). Kenya in crisis (No. 137). International Crisis Group.
Kaufman, K.R., Brodine, S., & Shaffer, R. (2000). Military training-related injuries: surveillance, research, and prevention. American journal of preventive medicine, 18(3), 54-63.
Kromah, L. (2010). The role of AMISOM's civilian component. conflict trends, 2010(2), 21-27.
Lamphear, John, ed (2017). African military history. Routledge,
Lotze, W., & Kasumba, Y. (2012). AMISOM and the Protection of Civilians in Somalia. conflict trends, 2012(2), 17-24.
Miyandazi, L. (2012). Kenya's military intervention in Somalia: An intricate process.
Muthanna, K. A. "Military diplomacy." Journal of Defence Studies 5, no. 1 (2011): 1-15.
Oder, S., & Lisa, P. (2011). Seeking Peace in Somalia: A Review of the Impact of AMISOM Police. a Seminar on 15th April.
Omar, M. (2012). Intervention in the Somali Conflict. Managing Peace and Security in Africa: Essays on Approaches to Interventions in African Conflicts. Institute for Peace and Security, Addis Ababa, 2012.
Onoja, A. (2008). Peacekeeping challenges in Africa: The Darfur conflict. conflict trends 2008 (3), 39-44.
Piombo, Jessica, Koh Ernest, and Ann Igoe. "The Darfur Conflict" (2005).
Ray, M., & Katarina, M. (2008). Peace Operations and Human Rights. New York: Routledge, 6
Robinson, C. (2016). Revisiting the rise and fall of the Somali Armed Forces, 1960-2012. Defense & Security Analysis, 32(3), 237-252.
Roble, F. (2007). Local and Global Norms: Challenges to "Somaliland's" Unilateral Secession. Horn of Africa, 25, 165-196.
Rollins, J. (2010). Al Qaeda and affiliates: historical perspective, global presence, and implications for US policy. DIANE Publishing.
Rossi, Enzo, & Matt Sleat. "Realism in normative political theory." Philosophy Compass 9, no. 10 (2014): 689-701.
Scarlett, C. CheruFatu et al. Africa and International Relations in the 21st Century.
Schaab, Brooke B., & J. Douglas Dressel. Training the troops: What today's soldiers tell us about training for information-age digital competency. No. ARI-RR-1805. Army Research Inst for The Behavioural and Social Sciences Alexandria VA, 2003.
Sharamo, R., & Mesfin, B. (2011). Regional security in the post-Cold War Horn of Africa. Institute for Security Studies Monographs, 2011(178), 436.
Shea, Timothy C. Transforming military diplomacy. George C Marshall Centre Apo Ae 09053 European Centre for Security Studies, 2005.
Shinn, D. H. (2012). International Efforts to Counter Al-Shabaab. E-International Relations, 1-2.
Sleat, Matt. "Realism, liberalism and non-ideal theory or, are there two ways to do realistic political theory?" Political Studies 64, no. 1 (2016): 27-41.
Squires, Chase. "New War Demands New Training for Troops." Guardian Unlimited (2006).
Streb, Christoph Klaus. "Exploratory case studies." Encyclopedia of case study research (2010): 372-373.
Swan, J. (2007). US Policy in the Horn of Africa. 4th International Conference on Ethiopian Development Studies. Michigan, Western Michigan University.
Studies. Michigan, Western Michigan University.
Tadesse, M. (2009). Somalia: Bailing out the TFG. Inter Africa Group Briefing, 9-15.
Tashakorri, Abbas and John W. Creswell. "The New Era of Mixed Methods." Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1 (January 2007): 3-7
Utley, Rachel E. (2017). Major Powers and Peacekeeping: Perspectives, Priorities and the Challenges of Military Intervention. Routledge.
Williams, P. D. (2009). Into the Mogadishu maelstrom: The African Union mission in Somalia. International Peacekeeping, 16(4), 514-530.
Williams, P. D. (2011). Pathways to peace in the Horn of Africa: what role for the United States?
Williams, P. D. (2013). AMISOM in transition: The future of the African Union Mission in Somalia. Rift Valley Institute Briefing Paper, 13.
Williams, P. D. (2018). Strategic Communications for Peace Operations: The African Union's Information War Against al-Shabaab. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 7(1).
Yamane, Taro. "Statistics: An introductory analysis." (1973).