Teacher Retention in Secondary Schools of Seventh-day Adventist Church in East Kenya Union Conference


Shadrack Kamundi


Teacher Retention, Secondary Schools, Seventh-day Adventist Church, East Kenya Union Conference (EKUC)


The study aimed at examining retention of teachers in secondary schools of the Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) Church in East Kenya Union Conference (EKUC). It employed a concurrent mixed methods research design and adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive survey. Out of the twenty secondary schools in the Union, the researcher targeted eleven which sat for the national exams since 2008. The subjects of the study included teachers, principals, the Conferences/Field Education Directors and the BoM chairpersons. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires for teachers. Interview schedules were organized for education directors, the school BoM chairpersons, the principals and teachers for triangulation. Observation schedule was also organized. This targeted the school infrastructure and generally all what goes on in the school. The school learning facilities and the behavior of teachers in school was also captured here. The other instrument used was the tool for document analysis to collect data for 8 years. Ninety-eight (98) teachers were required to fill the provided questionnaire, but the eleven principals, five education directions and eleven Boards of Management (BoM ) chairpersons were subjected to interviews. Three teachers per school were also interviewed for triangulation purpose. Observations were also done during the visits in schools. Documentary analysis method was also used to gather information on the turnover trends of teachers for eight years. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations.  Documentary analysis was done on records about teacher retention. Content analysis was done on responses from interviews and in open-ended questions to identify the emerging themes. The findings show that more teachers were leaving schools than those being employed in most of the years. Generally, it is evident that some teachers left church employment. The turnover was experienced annually. However, teachers intended to remain in the school as long as the administration was cooperative, understanding, appreciative, recognizes their efforts, was caring and was ready to treat them with dignity. The study recommends that the school administration should be cooperative to teachers, by treating them with dignity and appreciating their efforts. There should be stringent measures for motivating teachers, ensuring that they had access to housing and transport and that they were adequately remunerated.

Abstract 397 | PDF Downloads 143


Acom, A. M. (2010). Factors affecting teacher retention in government aided secondary schools in Eastern Uganda. MA Thesis. Makerere University.

Akram, K., & Bilal A.H. (2013). Recruitment and Retention of Generation Y Teachers in Private Education Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3 (15), 227-232.

Amutuhaire, T. (2010). Terms of Service and Job Retention among Academic Staff in Makerere University. MA Thesis. Makerere University.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practices. (8th Ed.). London: Kagan Page.

Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer B. (2007). The cost of teacher turnover in five districts: A Pilot Study. USA: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future. Retrieved from: files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EC497176pdf

Bonface, R. (2016). Teachers' retention in Tanzanian remote secondary schools. Exploring perceived challenges and support. Doctoral dissertation. Linnaus University, Sweden.

Chiat, R. & Miller R. (2009). Paying teachers for results: A Summary of research to inform the design of high-poverty schools. Washington DC. Center of American Progress. Retrieved from: https:/www.Americanprogress.org

Coley, C., Coley T. & Holmes L. K. (2009). Retention and student success: Implementing strategies that make a difference. White Paper Service. Fair Lakes Court, Virginia 22033. Retrieved from https//www.google.com

Deborah, R., Kim S.R., & Elisha B. (2014). Retention of new teachers in California. San Francisco: CA, Public Policy Institute of California.

Demetriou, C., & Schimitz A. (2011). Integration, motivation, strengths and optimism: Retention theories, past, present and future. Proceedings of the 7th national symposium on student retention, Charleston, 300-312. OK: The University of Oklahoma. Retrieved from https://studentsucess.unc.edu

East Kenya Union Conference. (2015). Education Statistics for the years 2008 to 2014. East Kenya Union Conference.

Freedman, W. & Appleman D. (2008). What else would I be doing? Teacher identity and teacher retention in urban schools. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35 (3), 109-126.

Fulbeck, E. S. (2011). Teacher retention: estimating and understanding the effects of financial incentives in Denver. Doctoral dissertation. University of Colorado.

Githinji, M. C., Afande O. F., & Riro K. (2015). Effect of strategic human resource management on teacher turnover in private secondary schools in Nyeri County. Journal of Poverty, Investment and Development, 11 (1), 21-29.

Guin, K. (2004). Chronic teacher turnover in urban elementary schools. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12 (42), 1-20.

Kipsoi, E. & Sang A. (2008, September 8-1). Teacher recruitment in secondary schools: Policy and Practice in Kenya. CCEAM Conference. Durban, South Africa.

Koech, J.S, Tikoko J. B., & Chemwei, B. (2014). Institutional factors that influence teacher turnover in public secondary schools in Baringo District, Kenya. International Journal of Education and Research, 2 (4)4, 51-462.

Koech, S. J. (2011). Factors that influence teacher turnover in Baringo District Secondary Schools. Master's Thesis, Kenyatta University, Kenya.

Lloyd, C. (2012, September 18). What happens if you get a bad teacher? Great kids, education trends, school life. Great Kids. Retrieved from: www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/bad-teacher/

Loeb, S., Kalogrides D, & Beteille T. (2011). Effective schools; teacher hiring, assignment, development and retention. Education Finance Policy, 7 (3), 233-268.

McLaurin, E.S., Smith, W., & Smillie, A. (2009, November). Teacher retention: Problems and solutions. Institute of Education Sciences.

Ministry of Education. (2005). Kenya education sector support program 2005 -2010: Delivering Quality Education to all Kenyans. Nairobi: Government Printer.

Monaco, T. (2016). Improving the recruitment and retention of teachers in rural Rwanda. Master's Thesis, Duke University.

Moore, R. (2014, July 14). A better plan for getting rid of bad teachers. Center for Teaching Quality.

Mugo, W.J. (2009, May). An Examination of Factors Influencing Employee Turnover: A Case of TSC Teachers in Kirinyaga District, Kenya. Master' Thesis.

Mbwiria, K.N. (2010). Influence of principal's leadership styles on teachers' career commitment in secondary schools in Imenti South District in Kenya. Master's Thesis. Chuka University College.

Orodho, A. J. (2012). Techniques of writing research proposals & reports in education and social sciences. (2012th, Ed.). Nairobi: Kanezja HP Enterprises.

Oyaro, K. (2008). Education- Kenya: Students Pour in Teachers Drain Away. Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved from http://ww.ipsnews,net

Republic of Kenya/UNICEF (2012). Education for all. End of decade assessment (2001-2010). Ministry of Education/UNICEF. Nairobi

Sam, K. F., Effah B. & Osei-Owusu B. (2014). Exploring issues of teacher retention and attrition in Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(1), 83-88. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP/article/view/10415/10612

Sargent, B. (2003). Finding good teachers and keeping them. Educational Leadership, 60(8) 44-47.

Sawchuk, S. (2009). School leaders target salary reform toward newer teachers. Education Week, 28(19), 1-10.

Schaffhauser, D. (2014). The problem isn't teacher recruiting; its retention. The Journal. https://thejournal.com/articles/2014/07/17/the-problem-isnt-teacher-recruiting-its-retention.aspx

UNESCO, (2010). Teacher attrition in Sub-Saharan Africa: the neglected dimension of the teacher supply challenge. UNESCO. Retrieved from unedoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001881/188197.pdf

White, E.G. (1903). Education. Grantham, England: Stanborough Press Ltd.

White, E.G. (1943). Counsel to parents, teachers and students. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association.

World Bank. (2004). Kenya: Strengthening the foundation of education and training: Opportunities and challenges in primary and general secondary education. Nairobi: World Bank.

Xaba, I. M. (2003). Managing teacher turnover. South African Journal of Education, 23 (4) 287-291.